A Gram-positive, strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated YB-7T, was isolated from activated sludge of an anaerobic baffled reactor pond in Weizhou terminal wastewater treatment plant, Beihai, Guangxi, China. Strain YB-7T grew at pH 5.0–12.0 (optimum, pH 7.0), 20–45 °C (37 °C) and NaCl concentration of 0–5 % w/v (optimum, 5 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis results showed that strain YB-7T belonged to the genus Clostridium and it was most closely related to Clostridium tetanomorphum DSM 4474T (96.9 % similarity). The DNA–DNA relatedness of strain YB-7T to Clostridium tetanomorphum DSM 4474T was 47.4 %. The DNA G+C content of strain YB-7T was determined to be 32.3 mol%, and the predominant cellar fatty acid (>10 %) was C16 : 0. Polar lipids of strain YB-7T included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminophospholipids, two unidentified phospholipids and unidentified lipids. The results of this study supported the conclusion that strain YB-7T should be assigned to a new member of the genus Clostridium , for which the name Clostridium beihaiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YB-7T (=CICC 24109T=KCTC 15555T).
A novel bacterial strain, designated T8T, isolated from ripened Pu’er tea, was investigated by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells stained Gram-positive and were aerobic, sporogenous and rod-shaped with flagella. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the strain belonged to the family Bacillaceae in the class Bacilli and represented an independent taxon separated from other genera. Strain T8T shared low levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (<94 %) to members of other genera in the family Bacillaceae and was most closely related to Bacillus composti SgZ-9T (93.3 % sequence similarity). The DNA G+C content of strain T8T was 40 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of strain T8T were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The strain had a cell-wall type A1γ peptidoglycan with meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. MK-7 (62 %), MK-6 (31 %) and MK-8 (7 %) were detected as the isoprenoid quinones. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and six unidentified phospholipids. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence presented, strain T8T is considered to represent a novel genus and species in the family Bacillaceae , for which we propose the name Pueribacillus theae gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is T8T (=CGMCC 1.15924T=KCTC 333888T).
The genus Desulfotomaculum is a heterogeneous group of spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria. The type species of the genus is Desulfotomaculum nigrificans (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Visser et al. 2014. The results of phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the genus Desulfotomaculum already has lost the clustering monophyly and was segregated into some distinct groups with low sequence similarity. Major features of the type strains in these groups were compared, and four novel genera, Desulfallas gen. nov., Desulfofundulus gen. nov., Desulfofarcimen gen. nov. and Desulfohalotomaculum gen. nov. were proposed to accommodate species transferred from the genus Desulfotomaculum .
A novel strain, designated NIBRBAC000499792T, was isolated from a soil sample collected at Jukgye, Dongnam, Cheonan, Republic of Korea. Cells were Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, oxidase-negative and catalase-negative. Colonies grown on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar were white, circular, raised and entire. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NIBRBAC000499792T belongs to the genus Lactobacillus (family Lactobacillaceae ) and is most closely related to Lactobacillus nodensis DSM 19682T (96.1 % similarity) and Lactobacillus tucceti KCTC 21005T (96.7 %). The results of DNA–DNA hybridization experiments demonstrated that strain NIBRBAC000499792T represents a novel species. Major fatty acids are C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and unidentified 18.846 and/or C19 : 1ω6c and/or C19 : 0cyclo. The predominant respiratory quinones are menaquinone-8 and menaquinone-9. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The minor polar lipids are one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified phospholipid, and four unidentified lipids. Next-generation sequencing analysis of strain NIBRBAC000499792T indicated that the total genome size was 1 548 794 bp with a G+C content of 33.1 mol%, 1586 coding sequences, 50 tRNAs and nine rRNAs. The most closely related genomes belonged to Lactobacillus species. Most metabolic pathways were related to carbon metabolism and carbon fixation. Based on this polyphasic analysis, strain NIBRBAC000499792T represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus , for which the name Lactobacillus terrae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain NIBRBAC000499792T (=KCTC 21093T=JCM 32269T).
A facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and non-motile bacterium was isolated from permafrost sediment cores in the Kolyma lowland, Siberia, Russia. The permafrost isolate clustered with members of the genus Cohnella on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and showed the highest sequence similarity to Cohnella saccharovorans CJ22T (96.3 %), followed by Cohnella cellulosilytica FCN3-3T (96.0 %) and Cohnella panacarvi KCTC 13060T (96.0 %). The chemotaxonomic characteristics (quinone system, cellular fatty acids and polar lipid profile) of strain 20.16T were consistent with members of the genus Cohnella . The peptidoglycan diaminoacids included meso-diaminopimelic acid and a small amount of ll-diaminopimelic acid. The molar ratio and composition of major amino acids (meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine, and glutamic acid) correspond to the peptydoglycan type A1γ. The estimated genome size of strain 20.16T is 4.34 Mb (lower than those in other Cohnella species). The genome has a G+C content of 50.5 mol% and encodes 4843 predicted genes, of these 4740 are protein-coding ones. The results of chemotaxonomic, physiological and biochemical characterization allowed clear differentiation of strain 20.16T from the closest Cohnella species. Based on data provided, a new species Cohnella kolymensis sp. nov. is proposed, with 20.16T (=VKM B-2846T=DSM 104983T) as the type strain.
A strictly anaerobic, Gram-staining-positive, spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium, and designated BXXT, was isolated from cow manure. Colonies on DSMZ medium 311c agar plates were cream, circular, opaque and lustrous. Growth occurred at 20–45 °C with a pH range of 5.0–10.0 and at NaCl concentrations of up to 2 % (w/v). The optimum temperature, pH and NaCl concentration for growth were 30 °C, pH 7 and 1 % (w/v), respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 (26.8 %), C14 : 0 (22.8 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) (16.4 %) and C16 : 1ω9c (10.7 %). The main polar lipids of BXXT were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified aminolipids, an unidentified phospholipid and unidentified lipids. Acetate was mainly produced from H2/CO2, H2/CO2/CO (4/3/3, v/v/v), formate, glycerol, 1,2-propanediol, pyruvate, d-fructose and 2-methoxyethanol. BXXT is most closely related to Clostridium thermobutyricum DSM 4928T, Clostridium homopropionicum DSM 5847T and Clostridium thermopalmarium DSM 5974T with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.9, 96.6 and 96.5 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content of BXXT was 33.7 mol%, which was lower than that of C. thermobutyricum DSM 4928T (37.0 mol%) and C. thermopalmarium DSM 5974T (35.7 mol%). In addition, DSM 4928T and DSM 5974Tare thermophilic members of the genus Clostridium . The absence of C15 : 0 also distinguished BXXT from Clostridium thermobutyricum . On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic evidence, the novel isolate represents a novel species within the genus Clostridium , for which the name Clostridium bovifaecis sp. nov is proposed. The type strain of the type species is BXXT (=JCM 32382T=CGMCC 1.5228T).
A novel Gram-stain-variable, rod-shaped, non-motile and non-endospore-forming bacterium (strain G27T) was isolated from near Dhuvaran, Gujarat, India. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G27T was identified as a member of the class Firmibacteria and was most closely related to Bacillus populi FJAT-45347T (94.9 % sequence similarity), Salipaludibacillus aurantiacus S9T (94.9 %), Salipaludibacillus neizhouensis KCTC 13187T (94.7 %), Alteribacillus iranensis DSM 23995T (94.6 %) and other Firmibacteria (<94.6 %). The DNA G+C content of strain G27T was 43.4±0.6 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. Polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and five unidentified lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone MK-7. Major fatty acids (>5 %) included anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17:0, C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The results of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and biochemical tests allowed the clear differentiation of strain G27T from all other members of the family Bacillaceae . It is therefore considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Thalassorhabdus alkalitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Thalassorhabdus alkalitolerans is G27T (=MCC 3411T=CGMCC 1.15772T=KCTC 33941T).
Two strains of Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, aerobic or facultative anaerobic, and rod-shaped bacteria that were designated ON8T and ON6T were isolated from soil collected from a mountain wetland in Gwang-ju, Republic of Korea. The isolates were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells of ON8T and ON6T grew at 15–35 °C (optimal 30 °C) and 15–40 °C (optimal 30 °C), respectively. The major menaquinone was MK-7 and the major cellular fatty acids (>10 % of the total) were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C14 : 0 and C16 : 0. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, aminophospholipid and phospholipid. Meso-diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C contents of strains ON8T and ON6T were 50.6 and 53.5 mol%, respectively, and the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the nearest phylogenetic neighbour of both strains was Gorillibacterium massiliense G5T (93.9 %), followed by the members of the genus Paenibacillus in the family Paenibacillaceae . The DNA–DNA hybridization relatedness value between ON8T and ON6T was 44.1 %, which indicated that they represented distinct species. Based on polyphasic characteristics, a novel genus is proposed with the name Paludirhabdus gen. nov., which consists of two species, Paludirhabdus telluriireducens sp. nov. (the type species; type strain ON8T=KACC 19267T=JCM 31958T) and Paludirhabdus pumila sp. nov. (type strain ON6T=KACC 19266T=JCM 31957T).
A novel bacterium, designated strain L28T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a mangrove plant in Hong Kong. Cells of strain L28T are Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped and endospore-forming. Optimum growth occurs at 37 °C (range, 20–45 °C), 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl (range, 0–5.0 %) and pH 7.5 (range, 6.5–9.0). The major fatty acids are iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c alcohol. The major respiratory quinone is MK-7. The polar lipid profile comprises phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and two unidentified lipids. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that strain L28T exhibited the highest similarity of 96.7 % to Bacillus asahii MA001T. The genome size of strain L28T was 4 063 863 bp with a 36.9 mol% DNA G+C content. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, along with the phylogenic distinctiveness, it was concluded that this strain represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus acanthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this novel species is L28T (=DSM 104296T=MCCC 1K03287T).