Three Gram-stain-positive strains were isolated from fermented mustard and were rod-shaped, non-motile, asporogenous, facultatively anaerobic, homofermentative and did not exhibit catalase activity. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the type strains of Lactobacillus crustorum (98.7 % similarity), Lactobacillus farciminis (98.9 %) and Lactobacillus mindensis (97.9 %) were the closest neighbours. However, DNA–DNA reassociation values with these strains were less than 50 %. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus futsaii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is YM 0097T ( = JCM 17355T = BCRC 80278T).
Lactobacillus kunkeei is an inhabitant of fructose-rich niches and is a potential member of the fructophilic lactic acid bacteria. In the present study, the phylogenetic and biochemical characteristics of the type strain and eight isolates of L. kunkeei, originating from wine, flowers and honey, were studied. The nine isolates, including the type strain, formed a well-defined phylogenetic subcluster based on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The subcluster was not closely related to other subclusters in the Lactobacillus phylogenetic group. Biochemically, the eight new isolates showed typical fructophilic characteristics. The eight isolates grew poorly on glucose, but grew well on fructose. Good growth on glucose was only recorded in the presence of electron acceptors. The type strain of L. kunkeei differed from the other isolates only on the basis of poor growth on fructose. Although they belong to a group of obligately heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, all nine isolates, including the type strain, produced almost equimolar amounts of lactic acid and acetic acid and very little ethanol from glucose. Eight of the isolates can thus be regarded as typical ‘obligately’ fructophilic lactic acid bacteria. Although the type strain of L. kunkeei was phenotypically slightly different from the other isolates, it possessed several important fructophilic characteristics. On the basis of the evidence gathered in this study, the type strain of L. kunkeei is recognized as a member of the ‘obligately’ fructophilic lactic acid bacteria.
A novel Gram-stain-positive, white-pigmented, non-motile, non-sporulating, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic coccus, designated strain ZXM223T, was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the coast of Qingdao, PR China, during a green algal bloom. It grew at pH 6.0–10.5 and 0–25.0 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimum growth at pH 8.5 and 3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Growth occurred at 16–42 °C (optimum at 28 °C). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. Menaquinone 6 (MK-6) was the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids and two unknown glycolipids. The peptidoglycan type was l-Lys–Gly5–6. The genomic DNA G+C content was 43.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain ZXM223T within the genus Salinicoccus, with sequence similarity of 92.2–97.1 % between ZXM223T and the type strains of this genus. The closest relatives were Salinicoccus kunmingensis YIM Y15T, ‘S. salitudinis’ YIM-C678 and S. alkaliphilus T8T. The DNA–DNA relatedness between strain ZXM223T and S. kunmingensis CGMCC 1.6302T and ‘S. salitudinis’ CGMCC 1.6299 ( = YIM-C678) was 37±3 and 30±2 %, respectively. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics and low DNA–DNA relatedness support the proposal of a novel species of the genus Salinicoccus, Salinicoccus qingdaonensis sp. nov., with the type strain ZXM223T ( = LMG 24855T = CGMCC 1.8895T).
A novel thermophilic, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, terminal-spore-forming bacterium was isolated from an upflow anaerobic filter treating abattoir wastewaters in Tunisia. This strain, designated LIND6LT2T, grew at 40–60 °C (optimum 50–55 °C) and at pH 6.0–8.5 (optimum pH 7.0–7.5). It did not require NaCl for growth, but tolerated it up to 2 %. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as electron acceptors. Growth of LIND6LT2T was inhibited by sulfite (2 mM). Strain LIND6LT2T used cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, mannitol, sucrose and xylose as electron donors. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were acetate, formate, butyrate and isobutyrate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 (68.4 %) and C14 : 0 (8.3 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35.2 mol%. On the basis of its phylogenetic and physiological properties, a new genus and species, Defluviitalea saccharophila gen. nov., sp. nov., are proposed to accommodate strain LIND6LT2T, placed in Defluviitaleaceae fam. nov. within the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales. Strain LIND6LT2T ( = DSM 22681T = JCM 16312T) is the type strain of Defluviitalea saccharophila, which itself is the type species of Defluviitalea.
Two Gram-stain-positive strains, YIT 12363T and YIT 12364T, were isolated from human faeces. They were rod-shaped, non-motile, asporogenous, facultatively anaerobic and did not exhibit catalase activity. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the type strains of Lactobacillus casei (95.3 % similarity), Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (95.6 %), Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans (95.3 %) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (95.4 %) were the closest neighbours to strain YIT 12363T. For strain YIT 12364T, the highest similarity values were observed with the type strains of Lactobacillus diolivorans, Lactobacillus parafarraginis and Lactobacillus rapi (95.8, 96.0 and 96.0 %, respectively). Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that these strains each represent a separate novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, and the names Lactobacillus saniviri sp. nov. (type strain YIT 12363T = JCM 17471T = DSM 24301T) and Lactobacillus senioris sp. nov. (type strain YIT 12364T = JCM 17472T = DSM 24302T), respectively, are proposed.
A Gram-staining-positive, motile, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium, designated P9T, was isolated from soil in Portugal. This organism was aerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. It had an optimum growth temperature of about 35 °C and an optimum growth pH of about 8.0–8.5, and grew in medium with 0–9 % (w/v) NaCl. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the A1α type, with l-lysine as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (45.4 %), iso-C15 : 0 (22.0 %) and anteiso-C17 : 0 (11.2 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was about 39.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain P9T was most closely related to Jeotgalibacillus campisalis DSM 18983T (96.8 %) and Jeotgalibacillus marinus DSM 1297T (96.5 %). These two recognized species formed a coherent cluster with strain P9T that was supported by a bootstrap value of 99 %. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics, strain P9T ( = DSM 23228T = LMG 25523T) represents a novel species of the genus Jeotgalibacillus, for which the name Jeotgalibacillus soli sp. nov. is proposed.
An anaerobic, thermophilic, spore-forming bacterium (strain 64-FGQT) was isolated from a terrestrial hydrothermal spring from the Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. This strain utilized lactate as an electron donor, insoluble poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide incorporated into alginate beads as a potential electron acceptor and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as an electron-shuttling compound. Vegetative cells of strain 64-FGQT were Gram-stain-positive, peritrichously flagellated, motile, straight rods, 0.3–0.5 µm in diameter and 2.0–5.0 µm long, growing singly or forming short chains. Cells formed round refractive endospores in terminal swollen sporangia. The temperature range for growth was 46–70 °C, with an optimum at 65 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.5–8.5, with an optimum at pH 7.0. The substrates utilized by strain 64-FGQT in the presence of AQDS as an electron acceptor included lactate, malate, succinate, glycerol and yeast extract. The strain fermented galactose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, pyruvate and peptone. Strain 64-FGQT used AQDS, humic acid, thiosulfate, nitrate and perchlorate as electron acceptors for growth. Fe(III) was not directly reduced, but strain 64-FGQT was able to grow and reduce Fe(III) oxide in the presence of small amounts of AQDS or humic acid as electron-shuttling compounds. The G+C content of the DNA of strain 64-FGQT was 51 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the isolate in the genus Moorella, with the type strain of Moorella glycerini as its closest relative (97.2 % similarity). Based on phylogenetic analysis and physiological characteristics, strain 64-FGQT is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Moorella, for which the name Moorella humiferrea sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 64-FGQT ( = DSM 23265T = VKM B-2603T).