A Gram-staining-positive, heterotrophic, aerobic, non-motile, non-endospore-forming, yellow-coloured rod, designated strain N5T, was isolated from a soil sample collected at an industrial waste site in Noida, on the outskirts of Delhi, India. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain N5T was most closely related to members of established species in the genus Microbacterium (with sequence similarities of approximately 94.0–97.6 %), particularly Microbacterium indicum LMG 23459T (97.59 %) and Microbacterium gubbeenense LMG 19263T (97.18 %). In DNA–DNA hybridization studies, however, none of the DNA–DNA relatedness values between strain N5T and members of the genus Microbacterium exceeded 11.3 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 68 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain N5T, which had MK-11 and MK-10 as its major menaquinones and anteiso-C15 : 0 (45 %), anteiso-C17 : 0 (37 %), iso-C16 : 0 (8.5 %) and C16 : 0 (4.5 %) as its predominant fatty acids, were consistent with classification in the genus Microbacterium . Peptidoglycan in the novel strain, which contained ornithine, alanine, glycine, homoserine, glutamic acid, 3-hydroxyglutamic acid, muramic acid and traces of N-glycolyl residues, was of type B2β. The polar lipid profile of strain N5T comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown glycolipid. The novel strain’s major cell-wall sugars were glucose and galactose. Based on the phylogenetic, DNA–DNA hybridization, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain N5T represents a novel species within the genus Microbacterium for which the name Microbacterium amylolyticum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is N5T ( = DSM 24221T = CCM 7881T).
A novel actinomycete, strain S7F-02T, which produced primary branched hyphae and fragmented into V- and Y-shaped bacillary cells, was isolated from marine sediment collected in the Andaman Sea, Trang Province, Thailand. Lysine was found to be the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars of strain S7F-02T were ribose, arabinose and glucose. The characteristic phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain S7F-02T was 70.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain S7F-02T should be classified in the genus Promicromonospora . This strain formed a close association with Promicromonospora citrea DSM 43110T, with which it shared 99.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA–DNA hybridization data together with physiological and biochemical properties showed that strain S7F-02T could be readily distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic data, strain S7F-02T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Promicromonospora , for which the name Promicromonospora thailandica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S7F-02T ( = BCC 41922T = JCM 17130T).
A Gram-positive, non-endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain SK 18T, was isolated from surface soil of a landfill site by dilution plating on trypticase soy broth agar. Preliminary characterization of strain SK 18T via biochemical tests, analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed it within the genus Microbacterium . Analysis of the cell wall indicated that the peptidoglycan was of cross-linkage type B, containing the amino acids lysine and ornithine and with muramic acid in the N-glycolyl form. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. The major fatty acids of the cell membrane were anteiso-C17 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. These data further strengthened placement of the strain within the genus Microbacterium . Strain SK 18T shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (97.2 %) with Microbacterium ulmi DSM 16931T. Levels of similarity with the type strains of all other recognized Microbacterium species were less than 97.0 %. DNA–DNA hybridization experiments with strain SK 18T and its closest relative, M. ulmi DSM 16931T, revealed a low reassociation value of 39.0 % (σ = 3.8 %). Moreover, strain SK 18T showed a number of differences in phenotypic characteristics (colony colour, catalase activity, hydrolysis of polymers, acid production from sugars and oxidation of various substrates), and its DNA G+C content was also higher than that of M. ulmi DSM 16931T. These data indicated that strain SK 18T represents a novel species of the genus Microbacterium , for which the name Microbacterium immunditiarum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SK 18T ( = MTCC 7185T = JCM 14034T). An emended description of the genus Microbacterium is also provided.
A Gram-stain-positive, pleomorphic, oxidase-negative, non-motile isolate from the skin of a dog, designated strain 410T, was subjected to comprehensive taxonomic characterization. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolate showed highest similarities to the type strains of Corynebacterium humireducens , Corynebacterium diphtheriae , Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Corynebacterium ulcerans (96.1–96.8 %). The quinone system consisted predominantly of MK-8(H2) and MK-9(H2). The polar lipid profile of strain 410T contained the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, two unidentified phospholipids and four unidentified glycolipids. The polyamine pattern was composed of the major amines spermidine and spermine. In the fatty acid profile, predominantly straight-chain, saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids were detected (C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0). These chemotaxonomic traits are in agreement with those reported for representatives of the genus Corynebacterium . Strain 410T tested negative for diphtheria toxin. Physiological properties as well as unique traits in the polar lipid profile could be used to distinguish strain 410T from the most closely related species. These data suggest that strain 410T represents a novel species of the genus Corynebacterium , for which we propose the name Corynebacterium epidermidicanis sp. nov. The type strain is 410T ( = DSM 45586T = LMG 26322T = CCUG 60915T).
A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on an unidentified Arcanobacterium -like Gram-stain-positive bacterium isolated from otitis externa of a dog. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Arcanobacterium and was most closely related to the type strains of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (97.2 %), Arcanobacterium hippocoleae (96.5 %) and Arcanobacterium phocae (96.4 %). The presence of the major menaquinone MK-9(H4) supported the affiliation of this strain to the genus Arcanobacterium . The polar lipid profile contained the major lipids phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified phospholipid (PL2). Major fatty acids were C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C18 : 2ω6,9c/anteiso-C18 : 0 (detected as a summed feature). C10 : 0 and C12 : 0 were present in minor amounts. The results of physiological and biochemical testing clearly distinguished the unknown bacterium from other species of the genus Arcanobacterium . Based on these tests, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium should be classified in the novel species Arcanobacterium canis sp. nov. The type strain of Arcanobacterium canis is P6775T ( = CCM 7958T = CCUG 61573T = CIP 110339T). An emended description of the genus Arcanobacterium is also provided.