A novel actinobacterium, designated strain BR-34T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigro var. henonis) sampled in Damyang, Korea. The strain was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Catenulispora . The strain contained iso-C16 : 0 as the major fatty acid and MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8) as major isoprenoid quinones. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain BR-34T formed a cluster separate from members of the genus Catenulispora and was related most closely to Catenulispora acidiphila ID139908T (97.4 % similarity), Catenulispora rubra Aac-30T (97.3 %), Catenulispora yoronensis TT N02-20T (97.3 %) and Catenulispora subtropica TT 99-48T (97 %). However, the level of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain BR-34T and C. acidiphila ID139908T was only 45.32 %. Based on DNA–DNA relatedness, morphological and phenotypic data, strain BR-34T could be distinguished from the type strains of phylogenetically related species. It is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Catenulispora , for which the name Catenulispora graminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BR-34T ( = KACC 15070T = NBRC 107755T).
A novel actinomycete strain, designated YIM 75904T, was isolated from a soil sample that had been collected from a dry and hot river valley in Dongchuan county, Yunnan province, south-western China. The taxonomic position of the novel strain was investigated by a polyphasic approach. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain YIM 75904T formed a distinct clade within the genus Amycolatopsis and appeared to be closely related to Amycolatopsis sacchari K24T (99.3 % sequence similarity). Strain YIM 75904T had a type-IV cell wall, with no detectable mycolic acids, and had MK-9(H4) as its predominant menaquonine. Its cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, galactose, glucose and arabinose, and its major cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The genomic DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 68.5 mol%. Based on the results of physiological and biochemical tests and DNA–DNA hybridizations, strain YIM 75904T represents a novel species of the genus Amycolatopsis for which the name Amycolatopsis dongchuanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 75904T ( = CCTCC AA 2011016T = JCM 18054T).
A Gram-positive rod, designated 01-Gi-001T, was isolated from a wall colonized with moulds. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis clearly showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Microbacterium . On the basis of pairwise comparisons of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain 01-Gi-001T was most closely related to Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans DSM 16089T (98.9 % sequence similarity), Microbacterium profundi Shh49T (98.7 %), Microbacterium phyllosphaerae DSM 13468T (98.3 %) and Microbacterium foliorum DSM 12966T (98.1 %). The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was ornithine. The major menaquinones detected were MK-13 and MK-12. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown phospholipid and one unknown glycolipid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0, which were in agreement with those reported for other members of the genus Microbacterium . Physiological and biochemical characteristics and DNA–DNA relatedness between strain 01-Gi-001T and the type strains of its closest phylogenetic neighbours showed clear differences. For this reason, strain 01-Gi-001T ( = DSM 22178T = CCM 7640T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Microbacterium murale sp. nov.
The taxonomic position of a Streptomyces strain isolated from an extreme hyper-arid soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert was determined using a polyphasic approach. The strain, isolate C60T, had chemical and morphological features typical of members of the genus Streptomyces and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree, together with the type strain of Streptomyces radiopugnans . The two strains were distinguished readily using a combination of phenotypic properties and by a DNA–DNA relatedness value of 23.17 (±0.95) %. On the basis of these genotypic and phenotypic data, it is proposed that isolate C60T ( = CGMCC 4.7018T = KACC 15492T) be classified in the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces atacamensis sp. nov.
A novel Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain D94-1T, was isolated from soil collected in Liancheng county, Fujian province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain D94-1T was a member of the genus Nocardioides and was most closely related to Nocardioides salarius DSM 18239T (98.54 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Nocardioides marinisabuli DSM 18965T (98.30 %), Nocardioides basaltis KCTC 19365T (98.10 %) and Nocardioides dokdonensis KCTC 19309T (97.76 %). Phenotypic characteristics and DNA–DNA relatedness data served to distinguish strain D94-1T from N. salarius , N. marinisabuli , N. basaltis and N. dokdonensis . The chemotaxonomic properties of strain D94-1T were consistent with those of the genus Nocardioides : the cell-wall peptidoglycan type was based on ll-diaminopimelic acid, the predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4) and the major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 (29.15 %) and anteiso-C17 : 0 (21.0 %). The DNA G+C content was 71.8 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain D94-1T represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides , for which the name Nocardioides lianchengensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D94-1T ( = DSM 24663T = CGMCC 4.6858T).
A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, short-rod-shaped, non-motile strain (designated MJ32T) was isolated from a sludge sample of the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. A polyphasic approach was applied to study the taxonomic position of strain MJ32T. Strain MJ32T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Gordonia hirsuta DSM 44140T (98.1 %) and Gordonia hydrophobica DSM 44015T (97.0 %); levels of sequence similarity to the type strains of other recognized Gordonia species were less than 97.0 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ32T belonged to the clade formed by members of the genus Gordonia in the family Gordoniaceae . The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain MJ32T was 69.2 mol%. Chemotaxonomically, strain MJ32T showed features typical of the genus Gordonia . The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-9(H2), the mycolic acids present had C56–C60 carbon atoms, and the major fatty acids were C16 : 0 (34.6 %), tuberculostearic acid (21.8 %), C16 : 1ω7c (19.5 %) and C18 : 1ω9c (12.7 %). The peptidoglycan type was based on meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid with glycolated sugars. On the basis of phylogenetic inference, fatty acid profile and other phenotypic properties, strain MJ32T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Gordonia , for which the name Gordonia caeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ32T ( = KCTC 19771T = JCM 16923T).
A novel actinobacterium, designated strain YIM 100590T, was isolated from Panthera tigris amoyensis faeces collected from Yunnan Wild Animal Park in Yunnan province, south-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data showed that strain YIM 100590T is a member of the family Micrococcaceae . Cells were coccoid to oval (0.7–1.5 µm in diameter) occurring singly or in clusters. Growth was observed at 10–37 °C (optimum 28 °C) and at pH 7.0–11.0 (optimum pH 8.0). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (32.22 %), anteiso-C15 : 0 (31.64 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (17.38 %). The peptidoglycan was of A4α type (l-Lys–Gly–l-Glu). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, dimannosyl diacylglycerol, an unknown glycolipid and two unknown phospholipids. The quinone system comprised menaquinones MK-7 (91.9 %) and MK-8 (8.3 %). The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 100590T was 56.2 mol%. Chemotaxonomic data indicated that the strain belongs to the family Micrococcaceae . On the basis of morphological and chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, strain YIM 100590T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus within the family Micrococcaceae , for which the name Enteractinococcus coprophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Enteractinococcus coprophilus is YIM 100590T ( = DSM 24083T = JCM 17352T). Yaniella fodinae DSM 22966T was transferred to the new genus as Enteractinococcus fodinae comb. nov. (type strain G5T = DSM 22966T = JCM 17931T = MTCC 9846T).
An actinomycete strain, designated K09-0627T, was isolated from the roots of an orchid collected in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Two actinomycete strains K11-0047T and K11-0057T were isolated from the roots of Rumex acetosa and Houttuynia cordata collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that the isolates belonged to the genus Phytohabitans, and that they were closely related to each other and to Phytohabitans suffuscus K07-0523T. The DNA–DNA relatedness values between the three isolates and Phytohabitans suffuscus were below 70 %. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA–DNA relatedness values and phenotypic characteristics, the strains should be classified as novel species in the genus Phytohabitans , for which the names Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov. (type strain, K09-0627T = JCM 17387T = NBRC 107702T = DSM 45551T), Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0047T = JCM 17829T = NBRC 108638T = BCC 48146T) and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0057T = JCM 17830T = NBRC 108639T = BCC 48147T) are proposed.
A Gram-type positive, Gram-reaction variable, non-motile, psychrophilic actinobacterium, designated Cr8-25T, was isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite and was able to grow well over a temperature range of 1–15 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Cr8-25T belonged to the family Microbacteriaceae and showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Klugiella xanthotipulae 44C3T (97.0 %). However, strain Cr8-25T could be differentiated from the type strain of K. xanthotipulae on the level of genomospecies by a DNA–DNA relatedness value of only 37.2 %. Strain Cr8-25T contained a cell-wall peptidoglycan that was cross-linked according to the B-type, which is based on 2,4-diaminobutyric acid. The cell wall contained the sugars galactose, fucose and rhamnose. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain Cr8-25T were C15 : 0 anteiso (64.6 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (22.5 %) and the major menaquinones were MK-11 and MK-10. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and unknown glycolipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 58.8 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analyses and DNA–DNA relatedness data, strain Cr8-25T represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Microbacteriaceae , for which the name Alpinimonas psychrophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Cr8-25T ( = DSM 23737T = LMG 26215T).
An actinobacterial strain, designated D48T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a cypress tree collected from Mianyang in Sichuan province, China. The strain was Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and non-motile, with lysine as the peptidoglycan diagnostic diamino acid and acetyl as the peptidoglycan acyl type. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H2); small amounts of MK-7(H2), MK-10(H2) and MK-6 were also present. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The isolate underwent a rod–coccus morphological cycle, had a high DNA G+C content, was aerobic and grew between 12 and 37 °C (optimum, 28 °C). On the basis of the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and DNA–DNA hybridization data, the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter , for which the name Arthrobacter cupressi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D48T ( = DSM 24664T = CGMCC 1.10783T).