Two Gram-stain-negative, non-fermentative bacterial strains, designated 11-0202T and 11-0607, were isolated from soil in South Korea, and four others, LUH 13522, LUH 8638, LUH 10268 and LUH 10288, were isolated from a beet field in Germany, soil in the Netherlands, and sediment of integrated fish farms in Malaysia and Thailand, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA, rpoB and gyrB gene sequences, they are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter . Their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed greatest pairwise similarity to Acinetobacter beijerinckii NIPH 838T (97.9–98.4 %). They shared highest rpoB and gyrB gene sequence similarity with Acinetobacter johnsonii DSM 6963T and Acinetobacter bouvetii 4B02T (85.4–87.6 and 78.1–82.7 %, respectively). Strain 11-0202T displayed low DNA–DNA reassociation values (<40 %) with the most closely related species of the genus Acinetobacter . The six strains utilized azelate, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol and dl-lactate as sole carbon sources. Cellular fatty acid analyses showed similarities to profiles of related species of the genus Acinetobacter : summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 1ω6c; 24.3–27.2 %), C18 : 1ω9c (19.9–22.1 %), C16 : 0 (15.2–22.0 %) and C12 : 0 (9.2–14.2 %). On the basis of the current findings, it is concluded that the six strains represent a novel species, for which the name Acinetobacter kookii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 11-0202T ( = KCTC 32033T = JCM 18512T).
Three strains (14A-2-7T, 14A-3-1 and 14A-3) of Gram-stain-negative, prosthecate, motile bacteria were isolated from an algal medium supplemented with 10 mg ampicillin l−1 (w/v), in which the red alga Porphyra yezoensis had been cultured. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three isolates formed a cluster with the genus Algimonas of the family Hyphomonadaceae . The sequences of the three isolates had high similarity with those of Algimonas porphyrae 0C-2-2T (97.6 % similarity) and Litorimonas taeanensis G5T (95.6 % similarity). The DNA G+C contents of the three isolates ranged from 54.3 to 55.0 mol%, which were more similar to that of A. porphyrae 0C-2-2T (58.5 mol%) than to that of L. taeanensis G5T (47.1 mol%). The DNA–DNA relatedness showed that the three isolates were representatives of the same species (88.1–94.0 % relatedness) and that strain 14A-2-7T was a representative of a different species from A. porphyrae 0C-2-2T and L. taeanensis G5T (1.2–8.6 % relatedness). The phenotypic characteristics of strain 14A-2-7T differed by 20 results and 30 results from A. porphyrae 0C-2-2T and L. taeanensis G5T, respectively. The three isolates contained ubiquinone-10 as the predominant quinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acid. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Algimonas , for which the name Algimonas ampicilliniresistens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 14A-2-7T ( = LMG 26421T = NBRC 108219T). An emended description of the genus Algimonas is also proposed.
We isolated a bacterial strain designated PCAVU11T in the course of a study of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria occurring in rhizospheric soil of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in Guárico state, Venezuela. The 16S rRNA gene sequence had 99.2 % sequence similarity with respect to the most closely related species, Pseudomonas taiwanensis , and 99.1 % with respect to Pseudomonas entomophila , Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and Pseudomonas monteilii , on the basis of which PCAVU11T was classified as representing a member of the genus Pseudomonas . Analysis of the housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed the phylogenetic affiliation and showed sequence similarities lower than 95 % in all cases with respect to the above-mentioned closest relatives. Strain PCAVU11T showed two polar flagella. The respiratory quinone was Q9. The major fatty acids were 16 : 0 (25.7 %), 18 : 1ω7c (20.4 %), 17 : 0 cyclo (11.5 %) and 16 : 1ω7c/15 : 0 iso 2-OH in summed feature 3 (10.8 %). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive, the arginine dihydrolase system was present but nitrate reduction, β-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis were negative. Strain PCAVU11T grew at 44 °C and at pH 10. The DNA G+C content was 61.5 mol%. DNA–DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 56 % relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four most closely related species. Therefore, the results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses support the classification of strain PCAVU11T as representing a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas , which we propose to name Pseudomonas guariconensis sp. nov. The type strain is PCAVU11T ( = LMG 27394T = CECT 8262T).
A facultatively anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, strain C7T, was isolated from a permafrost cryopeg on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this bacterium was closely related to Celerinatantimonas diazotrophica S-G2-2T with a similarity of 95.5 %. Strain C7T differed from Celerinatantimonas diazotrophica in its ability to hydrolyse gelatin and inability to use d-mannose, melibiose, l-rhamnose, myo-inositol, lactose, lactulose, d-mannitol, trehalose, dl-lactate, glycogen or l-proline as sole carbon sources. In addition, strain C7T grew over a temperature range of 0–34 °C with optimum growth at 18–22 °C. The whole-cell fatty acid profile included C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω7, C18 : 1ω7, C17 cyclo and summed feature 2 [comprising C12 : 0 aldehyde and/or unknown fatty acid 10.913 (MIDI designation) and/or iso-C16 : 1/C14 : 0 3-OH]. The DNA G+C content was 44.7 mol%. Strain C7T is thus considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Celerinatantimonas yamalensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C7T ( = VKM B-2511T = DSM 21888T).
A taxonomic study was carried out on strain R8-12T, which was isolated from deep-sea water of the Indian Ocean during the screening of oil-degrading bacteria. The isolate was Gram-stain-negative, oxidase and catalase-positive. Growth was observed at salinities from 0.5 to 15 % (optimum 3 %), at pH from 6–10 (optimum 7–8) and at temperatures from 10 to 42 °C (optimum 28 °C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain R8-12T was shown to belong to the genus Alcanivorax and to be related to Alcanivorax venustensis DSM 13974T (97.2 %), A. dieselolei B-5T (95.0 %), A. balearicus MACL04T (94.6 %), A. hongdengensis A-11-3T (94.3 %), A. jadensis T9T (93.8 %), A. borkumensis SK2T (93.7 %) and A. pacificus W11-5T (93.7 %). The gyrB sequence similarities between R8-12T and other species of the genus Alcanivorax ranged from 77.9 % to 86.9 %. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 (31.8 %), C18 : 1ω7c (20.3 %), C19 : 0ω8c cyclo (15.8 %) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) (8.9 %). The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), two aminolipids (AL1–AL2) and two phospholipids (PL1–PL2). Three alkane hydroxylase (alkB) genes were identified in the genome. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 66.1 mol%. DNA–DNA hybridization showed that strain R8-12T and A. venustensis DSM 13974T had a DNA–DNA relatedness of 63±3 %. According to its phenotypic features and fatty acid composition as well as the 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, the novel strain represents a member of the genus Alcanivorax , but could be easily distinguished from all other known species of the genus Alcanivorax described to date. The name Alcanivorax marinus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain R8-12T ( = MCCC 1A00382T = LMG 24621T = CCTCC AB 208234T).
Two Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, non-flagellated and non-spore-forming amylolytic marine bacterial strains, designated CC-AMZ-30MT and CC-AMZ-30NT, were isolated from coastal surface seawater in Taiwan. Strain CC-AMZ-30MT shared pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 95.8, 95.0 and <94.0 % to Sphingomicrobium lutaoense CC-TBT-3T, Sphingomicrobium astaxanthinifaciens CC-AMO-30BT and other sphingomonads, respectively. Strain CC-AMZ-30NT shared 97.0, 96.7, 95.0 and <95.1 % similarities to strain CC-AMZ-30MT, Sphingomicrobium lutaoense CC-TBT-3T, Sphingomicrobium astaxanthinifaciens CC-AMO-30BT and other sphingomonads, respectively. The common polar lipids of the two strains include a signature glycolipid (GL2), diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingoglycolipid in major amounts besides moderate-to-trace amounts of an unidentified aminolipid and several unidentified glycolipids. Both strains contained C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1 2-OH as major (>5 % of the total) fatty acids. Strains CC-AMZ-30MT and CC-AMZ-30NT had DNA G+C contents of 64.2 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. The major polyamine was spermidine in strain CC-AMZ-30MT and triamine sym-homospermidine in strain CC-AMZ-30NT. Both strains contained ubiquinone Q-10 as the predominant respiratory quinone. Differential phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic evidence including the presence of characteristic GL2, C18 : 1 2-OH and several other phenotypic features supported the classification of strains CC-AMZ-30MT and CC-AMZ-30NT as two novel species of the genus Sphingomicrobium , for which we propose the names Sphingomicrobium marinum sp. nov. and Sphingomicrobium flavum sp. nov., respectively; corresponding type strains are Sphingomicrobium marinum CC-AMZ-30MT ( = JCM 18554T = BCRC 80466T) and Sphingomicrobium flavum CC-AMZ-30NT ( = JCM 18555T = BCRC 80467T). An emended description of the genus Sphingomicrobium is also proposed.
The taxonomic position of strain MSSRFBL1T, isolated from chickpea rhizosphere soil from Kannivadi, India, was determined. Strain MSSRFBL1T formed bluish black colonies, stained Gram-negative and was motile, aerobic, capable of fixing dinitrogen, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Q-10 was the major respiratory quinone. Major fatty acids of strain MSSRFBL1T were C18 : 1ω7c and C19 : 0cycloω8c. Minor amounts of C18 : 0, C12 : 0, C14 : 0 3-OH, C18 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω7c, C17 : 0 3-OH and C20 : 1ω7c were also present. Polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and two unidentified glycolipids. Bacteriohopane derivatives (BHD1 and 2), diplopterol, diploptene, bishomohopanediol, adenosylhopane and 2β-methyl bacteriohopanetetrol were the major hopanoids of strain MSSRFBL1T. The genomic DNA G+C content was 71 mol%. EzTaxon-e-based blast analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated the highest similarity of strain MSSRFBL1T to Ensifer adhaerens LMG 20216T (97.3 %) and other members of the genus Ensifer (<96.9 %) in the family Rhizobiaceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria . However, phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, recA, thrC and dnaK gene sequences showed distinct out-grouping from the recognized genera of the family Rhizobiaceae . Based on phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic characters, strain MSSRFBL1T represents a novel species in a new genus in the family Rhizobiaceae for which the name Ciceribacter lividus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Ciceribacter lividus is MSSRFBL1T ( = DSM 25528T = KCTC 32403T).
A novel, Gram-staining-negative, non-flagellated, oval or short-rod-shaped, strictly aerobic and non-spore-forming marine bacterium, designated strain CC-AMW-CT, was isolated from coastal surface seawater in Kending County, Taiwan. Cells of strain CC-AMW-CT displayed unusual morphology and formed colourless or beige colonies on marine agar. The isolate shared pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.2 and 97.1 % with Shimia marina BCRC 80068T and Shimia isoporae BCRC 80085T, respectively, and established a discrete phyletic lineage closely associated with the members of the genus Shimia . DNA–DNA hybridization values indicated <18.2 % genomic relatedness with species of the genus Shimia . The polar lipid profile of strain CC-AMW-CT comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminolipids, four unidentified lipids and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c (summed feature 8; 75.5 %). The DNA G+C content was 61.2 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10 and the major polyamine was cadaverine. The chemotaxonomic evidence, including extraordinary amounts of C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c, major polar lipids, polyamine, quinone and DNA G+C contents of CC-AMW-CT, was in line with that of the members of the genus Shimia . Thus, strain CC-AMW-CT should be classified as a novel species of the genus Shimia , for which the name Shimia biformata sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-AMW-CT ( = JCM 18818T = BCRC 80548T). An emended description of the genus Shimia is also proposed.
A Gram-stain-negative, short-rod-shaped bacterium, designated 22DY03T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the East Pacific Rise. The isolate required NaCl and grew best with 3–7 % (w/v) sea salts at temperature of between 30 and 35 °C at pH 7.0. It formed non-pigmented colonies and produced exopolysaccharide, but did not produce bacteriochlorophyll a. Strain 22DY03T was positive for hydrolysis of aesculin and Tween 20 and negative for hydrolysis of casein, DNA, gelatin, starch and Tween 40, 60 and 80. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified phospholipids and four unidentified polar lipids. The major fatty acids were C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, C18 : 1ω7c and 11-methyl C18 : 1ω7c. The genomic DNA G+C content was 64.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 22DY03T should be assigned to the genus Roseivivax . The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between the isolate and the type strains of species of the genus Roseivivax were in the range of 94.1–95.8 %. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that strain 22DY03T represents a novel species of the genus Roseivivax , for which the name Roseivivax pacificus sp. nov. (type strain 22DY03T = CGMCC 1.12410T = JCM 18866T) is proposed.
An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium (designated strain CC-G9AT), motile by a polar-flagellum, was isolated from a hot spring water sample in Taiwan. Strain CC-G9AT could grow at 20–42 °C, pH 6.0–10.0 and tolerate up to 7 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain CC-G9AT showed pairwise sequence similarity to Pseudomonas mendocina LMG 1223T (97.7 %), Pseudomonas alcaligenes ATCC 14909T (97.8 %), Pseudomonas alcaliphila DSM 17744T (97.8 %), Pseudomonas toyotomiensis JCM 15604T (97.6 %), Pseudomonas oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016T (97.6 %) and Pseudomonas argentinensis BCRC 17807T (97.5 %), and lower sequence similarity to other species of the genus Pseudomonas . According to DNA–DNA association analysis, the relatedness of strain CC-G9AT to P. mendocina BCRC 10458T, P. alcaliphila DSM 17744T, P. alcaligenes BCRC 11893T, P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016T, P. argentinensis BCRC 17807T and P. oleovorans subsp. oleovorans BCRC 11902 was 55.1±3.1, 13.7±1.5, 14.1±1.8, 58.5±1.1, 28.9±2.0 and 28.6±1.8 %, respectively. The evolutionary trees reconstructed based on 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB gene sequences revealed varying phylogenetic neighbourhoods of strain CC-G9AT with regard to the most closely related type strains. The predominant quinone system was ubiquinone (Q-9) and the DNA G+C content was 64.3±1.3 mol%. The major fatty acids were C10 : 0 3-OH, C12 : 0, C12 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0 and summed features 3 and 8 consisting of C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c, respectively. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. According to distinct phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, strain CC-G9AT is proposed to represent a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas for which the name Pseudomonas guguanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-G9AT ( = BCRC 80438T = JCM 18416T).
A Gram-negative, straight to slightly curved rod-shaped bacterium, motile with peritrichous flagella, designated SgZ-6T, was isolated from an electroactive biofilm and was characterized by means of a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred with 0–5.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1 %), at pH 6.0–10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and at 10–42 °C (optimum 30 °C) in trypticase soya broth. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes identified the isolate as a member of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas . Strain SgZ-6T exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to ‘ Pseudomonas linyingensis’ CGMCC 1.10701 (97.5 %), followed by Pseudomonas sagittaria JCM 18195T (97.4 %), P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016T (96.6 %), P. tuomuerensis JCM 14085T (96.5 %) and P. alcaliphila JCM 10630T (96.4 %). Strain SgZ-6T showed the highest gyrB gene sequence similarity of 93.7 % to ‘P. linyingensis’ CGMCC 1.10701 among all type strains of genus Pseudomonas . DNA–DNA pairing studies showed that strain SgZ-6T displayed 47.1 and 40.3 % relatedness to ‘P. linyingensis’ CGMCC 1.10701 and P. sagittaria JCM 18195T, respectively. The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The whole-cell fatty acids consisted mainly of summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c), C16 : 0 and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c). The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.1 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain SgZ-6T is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas , for which the name Pseudomonas guangdongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SgZ-6T ( = CCTCC AB 2012022T = KACC 16606T). An emended description of the genus Pseudomonas is also proposed.
Two strains (JC83, JC84T) of obligately anaerobic, H2S-producing bacteria were isolated from estuarine sediment samples collected from Gangasagar, West Bengal, India. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile rods. Both strains were positive for oxidase, negative for catalase, hydrolysed casein, reduced nitrate and utilized citrate. Both strains grew chemoorganoheterotrophically with optimal pH of 7–8 (range 7–10) and at 30 °C (range 25–37 °C). C16 : 1ω7c, C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C12 : 0 were the major fatty acids of both strains with minor amounts of C14 : 0, C12 : 0 3-OH and C18 : 0. Polar lipids of both strains included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, an unidentified aminolipid (AL2), an unidentified phospholipid (PL2) and an unidentified lipid (L3). MK-6 was the major respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C content of strains JC83 and JC84T was 25.0 and 24.6 mol%, respectively. The strains showed DNA reassociation >85 % (86.0±0.5 %) (based on DNA–DNA hybridization). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains were identified as belonging to the family Campylobacteraceae of the class Epsilonproteobacteria with Arcobacter marinus CL-S1T (95.4 % sequence similarity) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour. On the basis of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as phylogenetic analysis, strains JC83 and JC84T are considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Arcobacter anaerophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC84T ( = KCTC 15071T = MTCC 10956T = DSM 24636T). An emended description of the genus Arcobacter is provided.
A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain WM67T, was isolated from the gut of an abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) collected from the northern coast of Jeju Island in Korea. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain WM67T clustered in the genus Pseudoruegeria , and the highest sequence similarity was shared with Pseudoruegeria lutimaris (98.0 % similarity to the type strain). Optimal growth of the isolate occurred at 30 °C, pH 7–8 and with 1 % (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of strain WM67T comprised phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and three unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 66.5 mol%. DNA–DNA hybridization indicated <17 % genomic relatedness to other members of the genus Pseudoruegeria . The physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain WM67T represents a novel species of Pseudoruegeria , for which the name Pseudoruegeria haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WM67T ( = KACC 17214T = JCM 18872T).
A brick-red-coloured, curved-rod-shaped, prostheca-bearing and non-motile bacterial strain, designated JC2236T, was isolated from a seawater sample of Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that this strain belongs to the family Hyphomonadaceae and represents a distinct phyletic line that reflects a novel genus status within a clade containing the genera Litorimonas , Hellea , Robiginitomaculum and Algimonas . The predominant isoprenoid quinone (Q10) and polar lipid profile (phosphatidylglycerol, glucuronopyranosyl diglyceride and monoglycosyl diglyderide) were in line with those of most members of the family. However, the DNA G+C content (49.3 mol%), the abundance of C16 : 0, the requirement of sea salts for growth and absence of cell motility differentiated strain JC2236T from other closely related genera. Overall enzyme traits also demonstrated that the novel strain is not closely affiliated with any of the previously described genera. Thus, based on data from the present polyphasic taxonomic study, strain JC2236T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus belonging to the family Hyphomonadaceae , for which the name Fretibacter rubidus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Fretibacter rubidus is JC2236T ( = KACC 16935T = JCM 15585T).
A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain SC18T, was isolated from a tidal flat of Suncheon bay in South Korea. Cells were rod-shaped and motile by means of a polar flagellum. Cells were catalase-, oxidase- and β-haemolysis-positive. Growth was observed at 4–37 °C (optimum, 25–30 °C), at pH 5.0–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0–5.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0–2 %). The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipid pattern indicated the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified lipids. Strain SC18T contained Q-7, Q-8, MK-7 and MMK-7 as the dominant respiratory quinones and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 41.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrase B (gyrB) gene sequences showed that strain SC18T formed a tight phyletic lineage with members of the genus Shewanella . Strain SC18T was related most closely to Shewanella denitrificans OS217T (97.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Shewanella gaetbuli TF-27T (97.1 %), but the DNA–DNA relatedness levels between strain SC18T and the type strains of S. denitrificans and S. gaetbuli were 18.3±2.8 and 22.5±1.6 % (mean±sd), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular features, strain SC18T represents a novel species of the genus Shewanella , for which the name Shewanella aestuarii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SC18T ( = KACC 16187T = JCM 17801T).
Analysis of partial gyrB gene sequences revealed six taxa in a group of 17 Burkholderia glathei -like isolates which were further examined by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA–DNA hybridizations, determination of the DNA G+C content, whole-cell fatty acid analysis and an analysis of cell and colony morphology and more than 180 biochemical characteristics. The results demonstrated that one taxon consisting of three human clinical isolates represented Burkholderia zhejiangensis , a recently described methyl-parathion-degrading bacterium isolated from a wastewater-treatment system in China. The remaining taxa represented five novel species isolated from soil or rhizosphere soil samples, and could be distinguished by both genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. We therefore propose to formally classify these bacteria as Burkholderia humi sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 22934T = CCUG 63059T), Burkholderia choica sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 22940T = CCUG 63063T), Burkholderia telluris sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 22936T = CCUG 63060T), Burkholderia udeis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27134T = CCUG 63061T) and Burkholderia terrestris sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 22937T = CCUG 63062T).
A bacterial strain designated LTC-2T was isolated from a freshwater lake in Taiwan and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of strain LTC-2T were Gram-reaction-negative, facultatively anaerobic, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating, motile by means of a monopolar flagellum, non-spore-forming, slightly curved rods surrounded by a thick capsule and formed creamy white colonies. Growth occurred at 10–37 °C (optimum, 20–30 °C), at pH 6.0–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0–8.0) and with 0–1.0 % NaCl (optimum, 0 %). The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-10 and the DNA G+C content was 58.5 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine, two uncharacterized phospholipids and two uncharacterized aminophospholipids. The major polyamines were putrescine, homospermidine and spermidine. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain LTC-2T forms a distinct lineage with respect to closely related genera in the family Rhodospirillaceae , most closely related to the genera Elstera and Dongia , and the levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to the type species of related genera were less than 94 %. On the basis of the genotypic and phenotypic data, strain LTC-2T represents a novel genus and species of the family Rhodospirillaceae , for which the name Lacibacterium aquatile gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LTC-2T ( = BCRC 80445T = LMG 26999T = KCTC 32017T).