A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented actinomycete, designated strain SBS-26T, was isolated from a sample of black sand from Samyang Beach on Jeju Island (Republic of Korea) and was subjected to polyphasic characterization to unravel its taxonomic status. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism belongs to the genus Nocardioides but forms a distinct branch at the base of a Nocardioides ganghwensis–Nocardioides oleivorans cluster. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain SBS-26T showed the highest levels of similarity to those of N. ganghwensis JC2055T (97.7 %) and N. oleivorans DSM 16090T (97.6 %). The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain SBS-26T and other members of the genera Nocardioides and Marmoricola were in the range 93.0–96.2 %. The following chemotaxonomic characteristics support the phylogenetic association of strain SBS-26T with members of the genus Nocardioides: ll-diaminopimelic acid as the principal diamino acid of the peptidoglycan, MK-8(H4) as the major menaquinone, iso-C16 : 0 as the predominant fatty acid and a DNA G+C content of 69.1 mol%. The polar lipids contained phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unknown phospholipid. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain SBS-26T represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides furvisabuli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain SBS-26T (=JCM 13813T=NRRL B-24465T).
As part of an antibiotic-screening programme, the actinomycete strain HMC1T was isolated from soil collected from the banks of the Gamka River in the Swartberg Nature Reserve, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The isolate produced branching vegetative mycelia, which entwined to form rope-like structures. It exhibited antibiosis against Enterococcus faecium VanA (a vancomycin-resistant clinical strain) and Mycobacterium aurum A+. Organic solvent extracts of the culture filtrate and mycelial mass of strain HMC1T exhibited moderate antibiosis against Mycobacterium aurum A+, Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Tokyo) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RvT. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain HMC1T corresponded with those of members of the genus Actinomadura. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that the strain was closely related to members of the genus Actinomadura. Phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that strain HMC1T represents a novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura rudentiformis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HMC1T (=DSM 44962T=NRRL B-24458T).
A Gram-positive, non-motile, spherical, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, DS-52T, was isolated from soil from Dokdo, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. It grew optimally at 25 °C and pH 6.0–7.0. Strain DS-52T had meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, and galactose, mannose, xylose and rhamnose as whole-cell sugars. It contained MK-8(H4) and MK-9(H4) as the predominant menaquinones and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C17 : 0 as major fatty acids. Major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DS-52T is most closely related to the genus Nakamurella of the suborder Frankineae. Strain DS-52T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 96.5 % to Nakamurella multipartita JCM 9543T and 92.0–93.9 % to other members of the suborder Frankineae. The diagnostic diamino acid type and polar lipid profile of strain DS-52T were the same as those of the genus Nakamurella. However, strain DS-52T could be clearly distinguished from the genus Nakamurella by differences in predominant menaquinones, major fatty acids and cell-wall sugars. Accordingly, based on combined phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain DS-52T (=KCTC 19127T=CIP 108919T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species in a new genus, Humicoccus flavidus gen. nov., sp. nov.
Bacterial strain LW4T was isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater-treatment bioreactor. Cells of strain LW4T were Gram-positive cocci, with a diameter of 0.7–1.0 μm. Colonies produced on LB agar plates were yellow, smooth, circular and 0.5–1.5 mm in diameter. Strain LW4T was aerobic and grew over the temperature range 26–34 °C and pH range 5–9, with optimal growth at 30.5–31.5 °C and pH 6.0–6.2. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain LW4T contained amino acid residues of lysine, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine and aspartic acid. The most abundant cellular fatty acids of strain LW4T were anteiso-C15 : 0 (32.15 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (31.65 %). Major respiratory quinones were MK-8(H2) (57.3 %) and MK-7(H2) (32.9 %). The DNA G+C content was 71.4 mol% (T m). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain LW4T was phylogenetically related to members of the genus Micrococcus, with similarities ranging from 96.5 to 97.3 %. Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness of strain LW4T to Micrococcus luteus DSM 20030T, Micrococcus lylae DSM 20315T and Micrococcus antarcticus AS 1.2372T were 55, 48 and 36 %, respectively. Based on these results, it is concluded that strain LW4T represents a novel species of the genus Micrococcus, for which the name Micrococcus flavus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain LW4T (=CGMCC 1.5361T=JCM 14000T).
Seven Gram-positive, coryneform bacteria with virtually identical whole-organism protein patterns were isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses. Representatives of these strains were the subject of a polyphasic study designed to establish their taxonomic status. The organisms formed a distinct branch in the Microbacteriaceae 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely related to members of the genus Agrococcus, sharing sequence similarities of 95.4–98.7 %. The chemotaxonomic profiles of the strains were consistent with their classification in the genus Agrococcus. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that the isolates should be classified in the genus Agrococcus as representatives of a novel species. The name Agrococcus casei sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon. Isolate R-17892t2T (=DSM 18061T=LMG 22410T) is the type strain of Agrococcus casei sp. nov.
A Gram-positive, rod-shaped or coccoid bacterial strain, DS-51T, was isolated from a soil in Dokdo, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain DS-51T grew optimally at pH 8.0 and 30 °C without NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DS-51T forms a distinct line of descent within the radiation enclosed by the genus Nocardioides. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain DS-51T were consistent with those of the genus Nocardioides: the cell-wall peptidoglycan type was based on ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid, MK-8(H4) was the predominant menaquinone and iso-C16 : 0 was the major fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 71.1 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain DS-51T had similarity levels of 92.5–95.1 % with the sequences of the type strains of Nocardioides species. Strain DS-51T could be distinguished from other Nocardioides species by differences in some phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain DS-51T represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides insulae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DS-51T (=KCTC 19180T=DSM 17944T).
An actinobacterial strain containing demethylmenaquinone DMK-9(H4) as the diagnostic isoprenoid quinone was isolated from a tidal flat sediment sample, from South Korea. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JC2054T represents a distinct phyletic line within the suborder Micrococcineae of the order Actinomycetales. The closest phylogenetic neighbour was Cellulomonas fermentans, with 94.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The novel isolate was strictly aerobic and slightly halophilic, with optimum growth occurring in 2–4 % (w/v) NaCl. Cells were non-motile, non-sporulating and rod-shaped. The peptidoglycan type was of the A-type of cross-linkage. l-ornithine was the diamino acid and d-glutamate represented the N-terminus of the interpeptide bridge. The predominant fatty acids were anteiso-branched and straight-chain fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylinositol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unknown phospholipid. The menaquinone composition of C. fermentans was determined to be MK-10(H4), MK-9(H4) and MK-8(H4) in the ratio 56 : 2 : 1. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence presented in this study, it is proposed that strain JC2054T should be classified as representing a novel genus and species of the suborder Micrococcineae, with the name Demequina aestuarii gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is JC2054T (=IMSNU 14027T=KCTC 9919T=JCM 12123T). In addition, it was clear from the phylogenetic analysis and chemotaxonomic data that C. fermentans does not belong to the genus Cellulomonas or any other recognized genera. Therefore, C. fermentans should be reclassified as representing a novel genus, for which the name Actinotalea fermentans gen. nov., comb. nov. is proposed, with strain DSM 3133T (=ATCC 43279T=CFBP 4259T=CIP 103003T=NBRC 15517T=JCM 9966T=LMG 16154T) as the type strain.