Five novel endospore-forming, nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of plants of the species Sabina squamata, Weigela florida and Zanthoxylum simulans. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the five strains formed a distinct cluster within the genus Paenibacillus. These novel strains showed the highest levels (96.2–98.2 %) of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Paenibacillus azotofixans. However, the DNA–DNA relatedness between these novel strains and P. azotofixans was 12.9–29.5 %. The DNA G+C contents of the five strains were found to be 51.9–52.9 mol%. Phenotypic analyses showed that a significant feature of the novel strains (differentiating them from P. azotofixans and other Paenibacillus species) is that all of them were unable to produce acid and gas from various carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, lactose and fructose. Anteiso-branched C15 : 0 was the major fatty acid present in the novel type strain. On the basis of these data, the five novel strains represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus sabinae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T27T (=CCBAU 10202T=DSM 17841T).
Three strains, 002-048T, RB589 and 002-051T, isolated from field soil in Japan, were characterized using a polyphasic approach. The isolates were Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile rods that formed ellipsoidal, subterminal endospores. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of these isolates included the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid as the cell-wall peptidoglycan, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids and MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C content was 44–46 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates represented an independent lineage that is distinct from related taxa and exhibited less than 94.3 % sequence similarity with respect to those taxa. Moreover, a DNA–DNA hybridization analysis showed that the three isolates represented two species. On the basis of their phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the isolates represent two species within a novel genus, for which the names Terribacillus saccharophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Terribacillus halophilus sp. nov. are proposed. The type strain of T. saccharophilus is 002-048T (=IAM 15309T=KCTC 13936T) and the type strain of T. halophilus is 002-051T (=IAM 15310T=KCTC 13937T).
A novel Gram-positive bacterium, strain A35T, was isolated from coastal soil at Chiba, Japan, and was identified as a member of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The bacterium was found to be a facultatively anaerobic and endospore-forming rod. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7, the major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0 and the DNA G+C content was 48.1 mol%. The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain A35T and Paenibacillus species with validly published names were less than 94 %. Strain A35T was clearly distinguishable from reference species for the genus Paenibacillus. Therefore, on the basis of these data, a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus terrigena sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is A35T (=IAM 15291T=CCTCC AB206026T).
A thermophilic, Gram-positive, endospore-forming, sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, designated RL80JIVT, was isolated from a geothermally active underground mine in Japan. Cells were rod-shaped and motile. The temperature and pH ranges for growth were 61–80 °C (optimum at 69–72 °C) and pH 6.4–7.9 (optimum at pH 6.8–7.3), and the strain tolerated up to 0.5 % NaCl. Strain RL80JIVT utilized sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors. Electron donors utilized were H2 in the presence of CO2, and carboxylic acids. Fermentative growth occurred on lactate and pyruvate. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone MK-7. Major whole-cell fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and C16 : 0. Strain RL80JIVT was found to be affiliated with the thiosulfate-reducer Thermanaeromonas toyohensis DSM 14490T (90.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and with the sulfate-reducer Desulfotomaculum thermocisternum DSM 10259T (90.0 % similarity). Strain RL80JIVT is therefore considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Desulfovirgula thermocuniculi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desulfovirgula thermocuniculi is RL80JIVT (=DSM 16036T=JCM 13928T).
Two novel polysaccharide-degrading bacteria (strains DCY03T and DCY04) were isolated from a soil sample of a ginseng field in the Republic of Korea and were identified as representing members of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Cells of the two isolates were Gram-positive, spore-forming, non-motile, straight rods. Based on DNA–DNA relatedness data, the strains were considered to belong to the same species. The DNA G+C content ranged from 56.6 to 57.0 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0 (63.8–62.8 %). Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two novel isolates and the type strains of recognized Paenibacillus species were 91.4–96.5 %. Strains DCY03T and DCY04 could clearly be distinguished from phylogenetically closely related Paenibacillus species on the basis of DNA–DNA relatedness data and phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, on the basis of these data, the two isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY03T (=KCTC 13010T=LMG 23604T).