Two Gram-negative, motile and strictly aerobic marine bacteria were isolated from a tidal flat sediment sample obtained from Dae-Chun, Chung-Nam, Korea. They were preliminarily identified as Pseudoalteromonas-like bacteria, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showing nearly identical sequences (>99.7 % sequence similarity) and the highest similarity (98.4 %) to the species Pseudoalteromonas undina. Some phenotypic features of the newly isolated strains were similar to those of members of the genus Pseudoalteromonas, but several physiological and chemo-taxonomical properties readily distinguished the new isolates from previously described species. DNA–DNA hybridization with type strains of phylogenetically closely related species demonstrated that the isolates represent a novel Pseudoalteromonas species, for which the name Pseudoalteromonas marina sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain mano4T (=KCTC 12242T=DSM 17587T). In addition, on the basis of this study and polyphasic data obtained from previous work, it is proposed that the species Pseudoalteromonas sagamiensis should be reclassified as Algicola sagamiensis comb. nov. and that strain B-10-31T (=DSM 14643T=JCM 11461T) be designated the type strain.
A Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain EMB325T, was isolated from activated sludge that performed enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a sequencing batch reactor. The predominant fatty acids of strain EMB325T were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C16 : 0, C18 : 1 ω7c and C18 : 1 ω7c 11-methyl. The strain contained phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol as polar lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.3 mol%. The major quinone was Q-8. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain EMB325T formed a phyletic lineage with members of the genus Simplicispira and was most closely related to Simplicispira psychrophila LMG 5408T and Simplicispira metamorpha DSM 1837T with similarities of 98.1 and 97.9 %, respectively. Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain EMB325T and S. psychrophila LMG 5408T and S. metamorpha DSM 1837T were 28 and 23 %, respectively. On the basis of chemotaxonomic data and molecular characteristics, strain EMB325T is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Simplicispira, for which the name Simplicispira limi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EMB325T (=KCTC 12608T=DSM 17964T).
Two Shewanella-like bacterial strains, WP2T and WP3T, which were isolated from west Pacific deep-sea sediment, were studied to determine their taxonomic position. Cells of the two bacteria were facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative rods and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain WP2T was psychrophilic, growing optimally at about 10–15 °C, whereas strain WP3T was psychrotolerant, growing optimally at 15–20 °C. The two strains grew in the pressure range 0.1–50 MPa, with optimal growth at 20 MPa. Strain WP3T was able to use nitrate, fumarate, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), DMSO and insoluble Fe(III) as terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic growth, whereas strain WP2T was able to use only nitrate, TMAO and DMSO. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains WP2T and WP3T were 97 % identical, and showed highest similarity (97 %) to those of Shewanella fidelis KMM 3589 and Shewanella benthica ATCC 43992T, respectively. The gyrB gene sequences of strains WP2Tand WP3 T were also determined, and showed highest similarity to those of Shewanella violacea JCM 10179T (90 %) and Shewanella sairae SM2-1T (87 %), respectively. Contrary to the 16S rRNA gene sequence results, the phylogeny based on gyrB gene sequence analysis placed strain WP2T, S. violacea and S. benthica in one group, while strain WP3T grouped with S. fidelis and S. sairae. DNA–DNA hybridization experiments supported the placement of strain WP2T with S. violacea and S. benthica. Phylogenetic evidence, together with DNA–DNA relatedness and phenotypic characteristics, indicated that the two new strains represented two novel deep-sea Shewanella species. The names Shewanella psychrophila sp. nov. (type strain WP2T=JCM 13876T=CGMCC 1.6159T) and Shewanella piezotolerans (type strain WP3T=JCM 13877T=CGMCC 1.6160T) are proposed.
A Gram-negative, aerobic, slightly halophilic, non-motile and coccoid- or rod-shaped bacterial strain, SW-277T, was isolated from seawater, Korea, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain SW-277T was catalase- and oxidase-positive and grew optimally at pH 7.0–8.0 and 37 °C in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SW-277T belongs to the Alphaproteobacteria as part of the clade comprising the genera Roseivivax and Salipiger with a bootstrap resampling value of 72.5 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain SW-277T and members of the genera Roseivivax and Salipiger were between 93.8 and 94.7 %. Strain SW-277T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1 ω7c and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 59.7 mol%. Strain SW-277T could be distinguished from members of the phylogenetically related genera Salipiger and Roseivivax by phenotypic differences and low 16S rRNA gene similarity values. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, strain SW-277T (=KCTC 12735T=JCM 13604T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in a new genus, Donghicola eburneus gen. nov., sp. nov.
A moderately halophilic, aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium was isolated from a tidal flat area of Dae-Chun, Chung-Nam, Korea. The strain, designated mano11T, comprised rod-shaped cells that were motile by means of polar flagella. It grew with 3–12 % NaCl and at 4–37 °C and pH 5.3–9.3. The predominant menaquinone present in this strain was MK-7 and diaminopimelic acid was not found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain mano11T belongs to the genus Marinobacterium. Strain mano11T exhibited 92.8–98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity when compared with the type strains of three other species of the genus Marinobacterium. DNA–DNA hybridization between strain mano11T and Marinobacterium georgiense DSM 11526T, its closest relative in terms of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, was 13 %. On the basis of the phenotypic, genetic and phylogenetic data, strain mano11T represents a novel species of the genus Marinobacterium, for which the name Marinobacterium halophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is mano11T (=KCTC 12240T=DSM 17586T).
A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, strain 3-2W4T, was isolated from the aeration tank of a wastewater treatment plant in Zurich and was found to have the exceptional capacity to degrade synthetic β-peptides. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 3-2W4T is closely related to Sphingosinicella microcystinivorans Y2T, but DNA–DNA hybridization experiments between these two strains revealed that they belong to two different species. The two strains displayed different fingerprints after PCR analysis using the repetitive primers BOX, ERIC and REP. Strain 3-2W4T did not degrade microcystin, which is a characteristic trait of Sphingosinicella microcystinivorans Y2T. Like Sphingosinicella microcystinivorans Y2T, strain 3-2W4T had the following characteristics: fatty acids comprising mainly C18 : 1 ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and C16 : 0, the presence of ubiquinone Q-10 and sym-homospermidine as the predominant polyamine compound. The polar lipid profiles of the two strains were almost identical, consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and sphingoglycolipid. Strain 3-2W4T and Sphingosinicella microcystinivorans Y2T utilized the β-peptides H-βhVal-βhAla-βhLeu-OH and H-βhAla-βhLeu-OH as sole carbon and energy sources and shared β-peptidyl aminopeptidase activity in common, which distinguishes them from Sphingomonas and Sphingopyxis type strains. On the basis of these results, strain 3-2W4T represents a novel species of the genus Sphingosinicella, for which the name Sphingosinicella xenopeptidilytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3-2W4T (=DSM 17130T=CCUG 52537T). The descriptions of the genus Sphingosinicella and the species Sphingosinicella microcystinivorans are emended.
The taxonomic position of strain LMG 23452T, which was isolated from coastal sediment from an aquaculture site near Qingdao, China, in 2000, was determined. Strain LMG 23452T comprised Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, motile rods and was found to be a halotolerant, aerobic, chemoheterotroph that produces catalase and oxidase. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain LMG 23452T shared approximately 89 % sequence similarity with members of the genera Devosia, Hyphomonas, Ensifer and Chelatococcus, which belong to two different orders within the Alphaproteobacteria. Further phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain LMG 23452T formed a separate branch within the order Rhizobiales, falling between the genera Devosia and Ensifer of the families Hyphomicrobiaceae and Rhizobiaceae, respectively. Strain LMG 23452T could be differentiated from its closest phylogenetic neighbours on the basis of several phenotypic features, including hydrolysis of the substrates starch and casein and assimilation of the carbohydrates d-glucose, d-mannose, mannitol, maltose and l-arabinose, and chemotaxonomically by the presence of the fatty acids C14 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 1 ω11c, C16 : 1 ω5c and C18 : 1 ω5c. The major fatty acids detected in strain LMG 23452T were C18 : 1 ω7c, C16 : 0, C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, C16 : 1 ω7c and C17 : 1 ω6c and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 57.1 mol%. Therefore, the polyphasic data support the placement of strain LMG 23452T within a novel genus and species, for which the name Sneathiella chinensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 23452T (=CBMAI 737T).
A polyphasic study was carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from soil cultivated with Korean ginseng in the Eumseong region of Korea. The novel strain, GP25-8T, grew optimally at pH 6–7, 28 °C and 0–1 % NaCl (w/v). The major fatty acids were C18 : 1 ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/C15 : 0 iso 2-OH) and C16 : 0 (together representing 71.2 % of the total). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain GP25-8T and members of the genus Burkholderia ranged from 94.7 to 97.4 %, indicating that this novel strain was phylogenetically related to members of that genus. The novel strain showed the highest sequence similarities to Burkholderia caryophylli ATCC 25418T (97.4 %) and Burkholderia phenazinium LMG 2247T (97.2 %); the levels of DNA–DNA hybridization with these strains were 28 and 12 %, respectively. These results support the conclusion that strain GP25-8T represents a novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GP25-8T (=KACC 11589T=DSM 18235T).
A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, strain SS011B1-20T, was isolated from sediments of the South China Sea. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 10 % and at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C. Strain SS011B1-20T contained Q-10 as the major respiratory quinone and C18 : 1 ω7c (81.2 %), C16 : 0 (7.0 %) and C18 : 1 methyl (4.3 %) as the predominant fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.7 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain SS011B1-20T belonged to a clade within the genus Oceanicola in the Alphaproteobacteria, the highest sequence similarities being found with respect to Oceanicola batsensis (96.3 %) and with Oceanicola granulosus (94.9 %). Strain SS011B1-20T could be clearly distinguished from other Oceanicola species on the basis of the genotypic, phenotypic and phylogenetic data. Thus, it is proposed that strain SS011B1-20T represents a novel species of the genus Oceanicola, with the name Oceanicola nanhaiensis sp. nov. The type strain is SS011B1-20T (=LMG 23508T=CGMCC 1.6293T).