Strain 39ET, originally characterized as Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum strain 39E and later renamed as Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus strain 39E, shows less than 97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of the type species of the genus Thermoanaerobacter, T. ethanolicus strain JW 200T. On the basis of a polyphasic analysis that included DNA–DNA hybridization studies with the subspecies of Thermoanaerobacter brockii, its closest phylogenetic relatives, strain 39ET represents a novel species of the genus Thermoanaerobacter, for which the name Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 39ET (=DSM 2355T=ATCC 33223T).
Two bacterial strains, PC-142 and PC-147T, isolated from poultry litter compost, were characterized with respect to their phenetic and phylogenetic characteristics. The isolates were endospore-forming rods that were reddish in colour after Gram staining. They were catalase- and oxidase-positive, were able to degrade starch and gelatin and grew at 15–40 °C and pH 5.5–10.0. The predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-7, the cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the A1γ type and the G+C content of the DNA was 58 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and phenetic characterization indicated that these organisms belong to the genus Paenibacillus, with Paenibacillus pasadenensis SAFN-007T as the closest phylogenetic neighbour (97.5 %). Strains PC-142, PC-147T and P. pasadenensis SAFN-007T represent a novel lineage within the genus Paenibacillus, characterized by a high DNA G+C content (58–63 mol%). The low levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to other taxa with validly published names and the identification of distinctive phenetic features in the two isolates indicate that strains PC-142 and PC-147T represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus humicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PC-147T (=DSM 18784T =NBRC 102415T =LMG 23886T).
Eleven strains of a hitherto unknown, Gram-negative, anaerobic coccus were recovered from various human clinical samples of patients hospitalized in two geographically distant French hospitals. These strains displayed the morphology and growth characteristics of those related to the genus Acidaminococcus. The clinical isolates shared at least 99.9 and 99.7 % of their nucleotide positions in the 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences, respectively. They displayed 95.6 and 88.9 % 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively, with Acidaminococcus fermentans. The 16S rRNA-based phylogeny revealed that all the clinical isolates grouped in a statistically well supported cluster separate from A. fermentans. Enzymic activity profiles as well as metabolic end product patterns, including propionic acid production, differentiated the novel bacteria from A. fermentans. Finally, phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, including large-scale chromosome structure and DNA G+C content, supported the proposal of a novel species of the genus Acidaminococcus, for which the name Acidaminococcus intestini sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ADV 255.99T (=AIP 283.01T=CIP 108586T=CCUG 50930T).
A sulfate-reducing enrichment culture originating from coastal marine sediment of the eutrophic Tokyo Bay, Japan, was successfully established with Casamino acids as a substrate. A thiosulfate reducer, strain C/G2T, was isolated from the enrichment culture after further enrichment with glutamate. Cells of strain C/G2T were non-motile rods (0.6–0.8 μm×2.2–4.8 μm) and were found singly or in pairs and sometimes in short chains. Spores were not formed. Cells of strain C/G2T stained Gram-negatively, despite possessing Gram-positive cell walls. The optimum temperature for growth was 28–30 °C, the optimum pH was around 7.8 and the optimum salt concentration was 20–30 g l−1. Lactate, pyruvate, serine, cysteine, threonine, glutamate, histidine, lysine, arginine, Casamino acids, peptone and yeast extract were fermented as single substrates and no sugar was used as a fermentative substrate. A Stickland reaction was observed with some pairs of amino acids. Fumarate, alanine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophan, glutamine and aspartate were utilized only in the presence of thiosulfate. Strain C/G2T fermented glutamate to H2, CO2, acetate and propionate. Thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate, sulfite and nitrate were not utilized as electron acceptors. The growth of strain C/G2T on Casamino acids or glutamate was enhanced by co-culturing with Desulfovibrio sp. isolated from the original mixed culture enriched with Casamino acids. The DNA G+C content of strain C/G2T was 41.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain C/G2T formed a distinct cluster with species of the genus Sedimentibacter. The closest relative was Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus (with a gene sequence similarity of 91 %). On the basis of its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain C/G2T (=JCM 13356T=NBRC 101112T=DSM 17477T) is proposed as representing a new genus and novel species, Dethiosulfatibacter aminovorans gen. nov., sp. nov.
A novel yellow-pigmented, non-motile, non-sporulating, catalase- and oxidase-positive, obligately aerobic, moderately halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic Gram-positive coccus, strain YIM Y15T, was isolated from a brine sample from a salt mine in Yunnan, south-west China. Strain YIM Y15T grew in the presence of 0.5–25 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6.0–10.0, with optimum growth at 8–10 % (w/v) NaCl and pH 8.0. It grew at 4–45 °C, with optimum growth at 37.0 °C. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. Menaquinone 6 (MK-6) was the major respiratory quinone. The cell wall contained Lys and Gly. The DNA G+C content was 46.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain YIM Y15T was a member of the genus Salinicoccus, with low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of the five described species of the genus, Salinicoccus alkaliphilus JCM 11311T (sequence similarity 96.0 %), Salinicoccus roseus DSM 5351T (94.9 %), Salinicoccus jeotgali KCTC 13030T (94.8 %), Salinicoccus salsiraiae LMG 22840T (94.8 %) and Salinicoccus hispanicus DSM 5352T (94.7 %). Together with the phenotypic differences, these results supported the proposal of a novel species of the genus Salinicoccus, Salinicoccus kunmingensis sp. nov., with YIM Y15T (=DSM 17847T =CGMCC 1.6302T) as the type strain.
A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, alkali-tolerant, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain CH9dT, was isolated from the sediment of Lake Chagannor in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The cells were rod-shaped and motile. Isolate CH9dT grew at pH 5.8–10.0 (optimally at pH 8.5), at salinities of 3–20 % (w/v) marine salts (optimally at 10.0 %, w/v) and between 20 and 50 °C (optimally at 37 °C). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain CH9dT were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 and its polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown phospholipids. The G+C content of the DNA was 44.7 mol%. Strain CH9dT exhibited a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity value of only 91 % with respect to Thalassobacillus devorans DSM 16966T and showed values below 91 % with respect to members of the genera Bacillus, Halobacillus and Marinococcus. Strain CH9dT could be clearly differentiated from its closest phylogenetic neighbours on the basis of several phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic features. Therefore, data from the polyphasic study support the placement of strain CH9dT in a novel genus and species, for which the name Salsuginibacillus kocurii gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CH9dT (=CCM 7365T=CECT 7154T=CGMCC 1.6287T=DSM 18087T).
A Gram-positive, non-motile, coccoid-shaped, non-spore-forming halophilic bacterial strain, BY-5T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern in Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The novel strain grew optimally at 37 °C and in the presence of 10 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain BY-5T had meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 47.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain BY-5T formed a coherent cluster with Bacillus halophilus and Marinococcus albus. Strain BY-5T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 98.7 and 97.4 % to the type strains of B. halophilus and M. albus, respectively. Strain BY-5T was distinguished from B. halophilus and M. albus by several phenotypic properties and DNA–DNA relatedness data. On the basis of the combined chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it is proposed that M. albus, B. halophilus and strain BY-5T should be placed in a new genus as three separate species. Marinococcus albus and Bacillus halophilus are reclassified in a new genus, Salimicrobium gen. nov., as Salimicrobium album comb. nov. and Salimicrobium halophilum comb. nov., respectively. The type species of the new genus is Salimicrobium album. Strain BY-5T (=KCTC 3989T=CIP 108918T) is placed in the genus Salimicrobium as a novel species Salimicrobium luteum sp. nov.