A moderately halophilic, Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain BH843T, was isolated from a solar saltern in Korea and subjected to a taxonomic analysis. Strain BH843T grew at salinities of 1–14 % (w/v) NaCl and at temperatures of 10–40 °C. The cells were motile cocci or short rods with single flagella and contained C16 : 0, C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C17 : 0 cyclo as the major fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66 mol% and the predominant ubiquinone was Q-9. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that strain BH843T formed a distinct phyletic line within the genus Halomonas, and the levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to recognized Halomonas species were below 95.1 %. The levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain BH843T and the type strains of phylogenetically closely related Halomonas species were below 25 %. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain BH843T represents a novel species within the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas kribbensis is proposed. The type strain is BH843T (=KCTC 12584T=DSM 17892T).
A novel marine bacterium, strain JCS350T, was isolated from marine sediment samples collected from a cold-seep area. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed high similarity to that of Erythrobacter luteolus SW-109T (95.9 % sequence similarity). Lower 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were shown to other members of the genus Erythrobacter (94.6–95.4 %) and members of the genus Porphyrobacter (94.5–95.2 %). Phylogenetic analysis with all members of the family Erythrobacteraceae and several members of the family Sphingomonadaceae revealed that the isolate formed a phyletic line with [Erythrobacter] luteolus that was distinct from other members of the family Erythrobacteraceae. The dominant fatty acids of strain JCS350T were 18 : 1ω7c, 16 : 1ω7c and cyclopropane 17 : 0. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10. The DNA G+C content was 54.5 mol%. The isolate did not contain bacteriochlorophyll a. Optimal growth required the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl with either 0.18 % CaCl2 or 0.59 % MgCl2, at pH 6.5 and at 35 °C. On the basis of the evidence of this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain JCS350T should be classified in a novel genus and species in the family Erythrobacteraceae, for which the name Altererythrobacter epoxidivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The misclassified species [Erythrobacter] luteolus is transferred to the new genus as Altererythrobacter luteolus comb. nov. The type strain of Altererythrobacter epoxidivorans is JCS350T (=KCCM 42314T =JCM 13815T) and the type strain of Altererythrobacter luteolus is SW-109T (=KCTC 12311T =JCM 12599T).
A novel marine bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample from Hwasun Beach in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The cells were found to be Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive, motile rods. The organism required natural seawater or artificial sea salts for growth. The temperature and pH ranges for growth were 20–42 °C and pH 5.1–12.1, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the organism belonged to the order Rhizobiales and formed a robust cluster with members of the genus Devosia. Its phylogenetic neighbours were the type strains of Devosia riboflavina (96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Devosia neptuniae (96.7 %), Devosia soli (96.5 %) and Devosia limi (96.2 %), ‘Devosia terrae’ DCY11 (96.2 %) and ‘Candidatus Devosia euplotis’ (96.2 %). The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10, the major fatty acids were C18 : 1, C18 : 0 and C16 : 0 and the G+C content of the DNA was 59.1 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic data and the results of phylogenetic analyses, strain HST3-14T represents a novel species of the genus Devosia, for which the name Devosia subaequoris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain HST3-14T (=KCTC 12772T =JCM 14206T).
A polyphasic taxonomic study including DNA–DNA reassociation experiments and an extensive biochemical characterization was performed on 14 Burkholderia isolates from moss gametophytes of nutrient-poor plant communities on the southern Baltic Sea coast in northern Germany. The strains were classified within two novel species, for which the names Burkholderia bryophila sp. nov. and Burkholderia megapolitana sp. nov. are proposed. The former species also includes isolates from grassland and agricultural soil collected in previous studies. Strains Burkholderia bryophila 1S18T (=LMG 23644T =CCUG 52993T) and Burkholderia megapolitana A3T (=LMG 23650T =CCUG 53006T) are the proposed type strains. They were isolated from Sphagnum rubellum and Aulacomnium palustre, respectively, growing in the ‘Ribnitzer Großes Moor’ nature reserve (Mecklenburg-Pommern, Germany). All moss isolates of both novel species showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens as well as plant-growth-promoting properties.
A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, Brevundimonas-like bacterial strain, DS-18T, was isolated from soil in Dokdo, Korea, and its exact taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain DS-18T grew optimally at pH 6.5–7.0 and 25 °C without NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DS-18T belonged to the genus Brevundimonas. Strain DS-18T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1 ω7c and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 68.7 mol%. Strain DS-18T exhibited levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.3–98.7 % to the type strains of Brevundimonas species and Mycoplana bullata. Mean DNA–DNA relatedness values between strain DS-18T and the type strains of phylogenetically related Brevundimonas species and M. bullata were in the range 15–32 %. Strain DS-18T differed from Brevundimonas species and M. bullata in several phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, strain DS-18T represents a novel species of the genus Brevundimonas, for which the name Brevundimonas lenta sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DS-18T (=KCTC 12871T =JCM 14602T).
Two novel red-pigmented Vibrio strains, MSSRF3T and MSSRF10, with antibacterial activity against phytopathogens were isolated from the rhizosphere region of mangrove-associated wild rice (Porteresia coarctata Tateoka), in Pichavaram, India. The cells were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic and rod-shaped and were motile by means of single polar flagella. The two strains were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, and were able to grow in 0.1–10 % NaCl (with optimum growth in 2 % NaCl) and at temperatures of 20–42 °C (optimum growth at 25–30 °C). Both strains produced acid and gas from d-glucose under anaerobic conditions and utilized a wide range of compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. The DNA G+C contents determined were 51.3 mol% for strain MSSRF3T and 51.0 mol% for strain MSSRF10. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, rpoA, recA and pyrH gene sequences showed that strains MSSRF3T and MSSRF10 belong to the genus Vibrio and are very closely related to Vibrio ruber JCM 11486T, with which they share 98.3–98.5 % (16S rRNA), 98.3–99.7 % (rpoA), 90.2–99.8 % (recA) and 91.3–99.4 % (pyrH) gene sequence similarities, respectively. Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness were 44 % between strains MSSRF3T and MSSRF10, 80 % between strain MSSRF10 and V. ruber JCM 11486T and 45 % between strain MSSRF3T and V. ruber JCM 11486T. Strain MSSRF3T was phenotypically similar to V. ruber JCM 11486T. However, the inability to reduce nitrate to nitrite, the ability to grow in 0.1 % NaCl and the presence of caseinase were characteristics that allowed differentiation between V. ruber JCM 11486T and strain MSSRF3T. In addition, strain MSSRF3T could be differentiated from strain MSSRF10 and its closest relative V. ruber JCM 11486T with respect to its genomic fingerprinting analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA, GTG5, BOX, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and ribotyping). Therefore, based on phenotypic, genotypic, phylogenetic and DNA–DNA hybridization analyses, strain MSSRF3T (=LMG 23790T=DSM 18581T) should be classified as representing the type strain of a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed.
A Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile bacterium, designated strain 43T, was isolated from a Japanese salty food and then subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain 43T is moderately halophilic, growing at NaCl concentrations in the range 5–25 % (w/v), with optimum growth between 7.5 and 12.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Growth occurs at temperatures from 15 to 42 °C (optimally at 28–37 °C) and at pH 5.5–9.0 (optimally at pH 7.0–8.0). A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain 43T belongs to the genus Chromohalobacter. The closest relatives were Chromohalobacter canadensis ATCC 43984T (99.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Chromohalobacter beijerinckii ATCC 19372T (99.1 %), Chromohalobacter sarecensis LV4T (98.3 %), Chromohalobacter nigrandesensis LTS-4NT (97.9 %) and Chromohalobacter marismortui ATCC 17056T (97.9 %). The DNA G+C content was 62.9 mol%, which is within the range described for the genus Chromohalobacter. DNA–DNA hybridization studies between strain 43T and C. canadensis CECT 5385T and C. beijerinckii DSM 7218T showed 38 and 49 % relatedness, respectively; lower DNA–DNA hybridization percentages were obtained with respect to other related Chromohalobacter species. The major fatty acids of strain 43T were C16 : 0, C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C12 : 0 3-OH. Overall, the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic results demonstrated that strain 43T represents a novel species within the genus Chromohalobacter. The name Chromohalobacter japonicus sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 43T (=CECT 7219T =CCM 7416T) as the type strain.
A Gram-negative, chemo-organotrophic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium (designated strain Ko04T) was isolated from anaerobic granules in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, and was investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Ko04T belongs to the order Rhizobiales in the Alphaproteobacteria. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain Ko04T was most closely related to Kaistia adipata (97.5 %) and that sequence similarities with other species of Rhizobiales with validly published names were less than 92.5 %. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10 and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1 ω7c/ω9t/ω12t, C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C18 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Ko04T was 67.8 mol%. The level of DNA–DNA relatedness with K. adipata Chj404T was 15 %. The results of the genotypic analyses in combination with chemotaxonomic and physiological data demonstrated that strain Ko04T represents a novel species within the genus Kaistia, for which the name Kaistia granuli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ko04T (=KCTC 12575T=LMG 23410T).
Two Gram-negative, milky-white-pigmented, motile, slightly curved rod-shaped bacterial isolates, UMS-37T and UMS-40, were isolated from rhizosphere soil of wild edible greens cultivated on Ulleung island, Korea, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by a polyphasic approach. They grew optimally at 25–30 °C and contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 % of total fatty acids) were C16 : 0, cyclo C17 : 0 and C16 : 1 ω7c and/oriso-C15 : 0 2-OH. The DNA G+C contents of the two isolates were 59.8 and 60.0 mol%. Isolates UMS-37T and UMS-40 exhibited no difference in their 16S rRNA gene sequences and possessed a mean DNA–DNA relatedness level of 94 %; they exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity levels of 96.8–98.2 % to the type strains of recognized Herbaspirillum species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that isolates UMS-37T and UMS-40 formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the genus Herbaspirillum. DNA–DNA relatedness levels between isolates UMS-37T and UMS-40 and the type strains of some phylogenetically related Herbaspirillum species were in the range 3–56 %. On the basis of differences in phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness and genomic data, isolates UMS-37T and UMS-40 were classified in the genus Herbaspirillum within a novel species, for which the name Herbaspirillum rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain UMS-37T (=KCTC 12558T =CIP 108917T).
An aerobic, moderately halophilic, Gram-negative, motile, non-sporulating bacterium, strain LIT2T, was isolated from an oilfield-water injection after enrichment on crude oil. Strain LIT2T grew between 15 and 45 °C and optimally at 37 °C. It grew in the presence of 1–25 % (w/v) NaCl, with an optimum at 10 % (w/v) NaCl. Predominant fatty acids were C16 : 0 (26.9 %), C18 : 1 ω7c (22.6 %), C16 : 1 ω7c (20.4 %) C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c (10.9 %) and C17 : 0 (8 %). Interestingly, the relative percentages of these last two fatty acids were intermediate compared with most species among the family Halomonadaceae for which fatty acid composition has been determined. The DNA G+C content was 53.7 mol%, which is very low among the family Halomonadaceae. Strain LIT2T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 94.06–95.15 % to members of the genus Chromohalobacter, 94.21–94.65 % to members of the genus Halomonas and 93.57 % with the single species representative of the genus Cobetia. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence presented in this paper, we propose the name Modicisalibacter tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate strain LIT2T. The type strain of Modicisalibacter tunisiensis is LIT2T (=CCUG 52917T =CIP 109206T). A reassignment of the descriptive 16S rRNA signature characteristics of the family Halomonadaceae permitted placement of the new genus Modicisalibacter into the family.
A novel thermophilic and heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain TFISO9T, was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field at the Yonaguni Knoll IV in the Southern Okinawa Trough. The cells were motile rods 2.5–5.0 μm in length and 0.6–0.9 μm in width. Strain TFISO9T was an obligate heterotroph and reduced sulfate. It grew between 35 and 60 °C (optimum 50 °C), at pH 5.4–7.9 (optimum pH 5.9–6.4) and with 1.5–4.5 % NaCl (optimum 2.5 %). The fatty acid composition was C16 : 0 (61.5 %) and 12Me16 : 0 (38.5 %). The DNA G+C content was 34.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain TFISO9T belonged to the genus Desulfothermus. Based on physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, strain TFISO9T represents a novel species for which the name Desulfothermus okinawensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TFISO9T (=JCM 13304T=DSM 17375T).
A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, Microbulbifer-like bacterial strain, ISL-39T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern of the Yellow Sea in Korea and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Strain ISL-39T grew optimally at pH 7.0–8.0 and 37 °C. It contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 57.7 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ISL-39T belonged to the genus Microbulbifer. Strain ISL-39T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 94.7–97.5 % with respect to the type strains of four recognized Microbulbifer species. DNA–DNA relatedness data and the differential phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness of ISL-39T make this strain distinguishable from the recognized Microbulbifer species. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, strain ISL-39T represents a novel species of the genus Microbulbifer, for which the name Microbulbifer celer sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ISL-39T (=KCTC 12973T=CCUG 54356T).
A novel heterotrophic, moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic, motile bacterium was isolated from a seawater sample collected at the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, retrieved from the whole-genome sequence, showed that this bacterium was most closely related to the single-species genera Reinekea and Saccharospirillum (95 and 94 % sequence similarity, respectively) within the class Gammaproteobacteria. The data from phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses supported the creation of a novel species of the genus Reinekea to accommodate this bacterium, for which the name Reinekea blandensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MED297T (=CECT 7120T =CCUG 52066T).
A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain A62-14BT, was isolated from a constant-temperature, spring-fed, freshwater lake. On the basis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain A62-14BT was shown to belong to the class Gammaproteobacteria, being most closely related to Rheinheimera sp. HTB082 (96.2 % sequence similarity), Rheinheimera baltica (95.01 %), Rheinheimera pacifica (96.35 %), Rheinheimera perlucida and Alishewanella fetalis (95.9 %). The major fatty acids (C16 : 1 ω7c, 38.56 %; C16 : 0, 19.04 %; C12 : 0 3-OH, 12.83 %; C18 : 1 ω7c, 7.70 %) and the motility of strain A62-14BT support its affiliation to the genus Rheinheimera. The salt intolerance of strain A62-14BT, together with the results of other physiological and biochemical tests, allowed the differentiation of this strain from the three species of the genus Rheinheimera with validly published names. Therefore strain A62-14BT represents a novel species of the genus Rheinheimera, for which the name Rheinheimera texasensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A62-14BT (=ATCC BAA-1235T=DSM 17496T). The description of the genus Rheinheimera is emended to reflect the halointolerance and freshwater origin of strain A62-14BT.
A bacterial isolate from the Baltic Sea, designated strain BA141T, was characterized for its physiological and biochemical features, fatty acid profile, pigment spectrum, DNA G+C content and phylogenetic position based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain was isolated from the surface of sediment in a deep basin of the central Baltic Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed a clear affiliation with the Alphaproteobacteria, and showed that the closest phylogenetic relationship was with the genus Rhodobium. The G+C content of the DNA was 61.2 mol%. Cells of strain BA141T were red-pigmented, Gram-negative, pleomorphic to rod-shaped, non-motile and catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth was observed at salinities of 0.8–6 %, with optimum growth at 1.5–3 %. The temperature range for growth was 10–37 °C, with optimum growth at 25–30 °C. The fatty acids were dominated by unsaturated fatty acids (>86 %); the number of fatty acids detected was very low, with 18 : 1ω7c (73 %) as the predominant fatty acid; other major fatty acids were 19 : 0 cyclo 8c (10 %) and 16 : 0 (8 %). The pigment spectrum indicated the presence of carotenoids and unknown pigment(s) with an absorption maximum at 430 nm, but not bacteriochlorophyll a. According to phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the phenotypic features, strain BA141T represents a new genus and species. The name Anderseniella baltica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed, with strain BA141T (=CIP 109499T=LMG 24028T) as the type strain.