A mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic methanogen, designated strain MobHT, was isolated from sediments derived from deep sedimentary, natural-gas-bearing aquifers in Japan. Strain MobHT utilized H2/CO2 or formate, but not ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol or cyclopentanol, for growth and methane production. In addition, acetate and tungsten were required for growth. Yeast extract stimulated the growth, but was not required. The cells were weakly motile with multiple flagella, presented as a curved-rod-shaped (0.8×2.0 µm) and occurred singly or in pairs. Strain MobHT grew at 15–40 °C (optimum 35 °C) and at pH 5.9–7.9 (optimum pH 7.0–7.5). The sodium chloride range for growth was 0–5.8 % (optimum 2 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.6 mol%. In the phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MobHT clustered together with Methanomicrobium mobile (95.4 % in sequence similarity), and formed a distinct clade from Methanolacinia petrolearia SEBR 4847T (95.6 %) and Methanolacinia paynteri G-2000T (95.4 %). The two species of the genus Methanolacinia utilized 2-propanol, whereas strain MobHT and Methanomicrobium mobile , the sole species of the genus Methanomicrobium , do not. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic features, we propose a novel species for the isolate with the name, Methanomicrobium antiquum sp. nov. The type strain is MobHT (=DSM 21220T=NBRC 104160T).