A Gram-stain-positive, motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain LZ2T, was isolated from a sample of orchard soil from Laizhou city, Shandong province, PR China. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain LZ2T was closely related to members of the genus Sporosarcina , sharing highest levels of sequence similarity with Sporosarcina pasteurii NCIMB 8841T (98.8 %), Sporosarcina soli I80T (95.9 %). The value for the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain LZ2T and Sporosarcina pasteurii NCIMB 8841T was 39.8±1.7 %. Growth occurred at 10–44 °C (optimum, 30–35 °C), pH 5.0–11.0 (optimum pH 9.0–10.0); NaCl concentrations of up to 7.0 % (w/v) were tolerated. The dominant respiratory quinone was MK-7 and the G+C content was 39.2 mol%. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The major polar lipids of strain LZ2T were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid. Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and phylogenetic data strain LZ2T represents a novel species of the genus Sporosarcina , for which the name Sporosarcina terrae sp. nov. (type strain LZ2T=KACC 18822T=MCCC 1K03174T) is proposed.
Strain MHT, a strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, spherical coccus or coccoid-shaped microorganism, was isolated from a cow rumen during a screen for hexanoic acid-producing bacteria. The microorganism grew at 30–40 °C and pH 5.5–7.5 and exhibited production of various short- and medium-chain carboxylic acids (acetic acid, butyric acid, pentanoic acid, isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid and octanoic acid), as well as H2 and CO2 as biogas. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that MHT represents a member of the genus Megasphaera , with the closest relatives being Megapsphaera indica NMBHI-10T (94.1 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity), Megasphaera elsdenii DSM 20460T (93.8 %) and Megasphaera paucivorans DSM 16981T (93.8 %). The major cellular fatty acids produced by MHT included C12 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 1 cis 9, and C18 : 0, and the DNA G+C content of the MHT genome is 51.8 mol%. Together, the distinctive phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of MHT indicate that this microorganism represents a novel species of the genus Megasphaera , for which the name Megasphaera hexanoica sp. nov. is herein proposed. The type strain of this species is MHT (=KCCM 43214T=JCM 31403T).
A novel xylanolytic and cellulolytic strain, BL9T, was isolated from leaves of the Bamboo plants maintained at the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Campus, Coimbatore, India. On the basis of the results of 16S rRNA gene analysis, it was determined to be phylogenetically close to the type strains of Paenibacillus amylolyticus NRRL NRS-290T (98.3 %), Paenibacillus barcinonensis BP-23T (98.1 %), Paenibacillus tundrae A10bT (98.0 %) and Paenibacillus xylanexedens B22aT (97.6 %). The strain stained Gram variable and was aerobic, motile and catalase- and oxidase-positive, with rod-shaped cells. Based upon the genome sequence, the average nucleotide identity with the related species ranged from 66 % to 72 %, and the digital DNA–DNA hybridization value ranged from 13 % to 27 %. The DNA G+C content was 45.6 mol%, meso-diaminopimelic acid was identified as the predominant component of the cell wall, and MK-7 was the only menaquinone in cell membranes. The whole-cell fatty acid profile included C16 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The polar lipids identified were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine and diphosphtidylglycerol. On the basis of these polyphasic taxonomic traits, BL9T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus , for which the name Paenibacillus polysaccharolyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BL9T (=NBRC 105191T=ICMP 17623T).
A facultatively anaerobic, endospore forming, alkali-tolerant, Gram-stain-positive, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain AK61T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Coringa mangrove forest, India. Colonies were circular, 1.5 mm in diameter, shiny, smooth, yellowish and convex with entire margins after 48 h growth at 30 °C. Growth occurred at 15–42 °C, with 0–3 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6–9. AK61T was positive for amylase activity and negative for oxidase, catalase, aesculinase, caseinase, cellulase, DNase, gelatinase, lipase and urease activities. The fatty acids were dominated by branched types with iso- and anteiso- saturated fatty acids with a high abundance of iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0; the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid; and MK-7 was the major menaquinone. DNA–DNA hybridization between AK61T and Bacillus indicus MTCC 4374T and between AK61T and Bacillus indicus KCTC 3880 showed relatedness of 37.99 and 33.32 % respectively. The DNA G+C content of AK61T was 44 mol%. The results of a blast sequence similarity search based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that Bacillus cibi and Bacillus indicus were the nearest phylogenetic neighbours, with a pair-wise sequence similarity of 97.69 and 97.55 % respectively. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that AK61T was clustered with Bacillus idriensis and Bacillus indicus . On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference, AK61T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus mangrovi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AK61T (=JCM 31087T=MTCC 12015T=KCTC 33872T).
The type strains of four subspecies of Leuconostocmesenteroides , L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides , L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris , L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and L. mesenteroides subsp. suionicum , and strain DRC1506T, used as a starter culture for commercial kimchi production in Korea, were phylogenetically analyzed on the basis of their complete genome sequences. Although the type strains of the four L. mesenteroides subspecies and strain DRC1506T shared very high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (>99.72 %), the results of analysis of average nucleotide identity (ANI), in silico DNA–DNA hybridization (DDH) and core-genome-based relatedness indicated that they could form five different phylogenetic lineages. The type strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides , L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and DRC1506T shared higher ANI and in silico DDH values than the thresholds (95–96 % and 70 %, respectively) generally accepted for different species delineation, whereas the type strain of L. mesenteroides subsp. suionicum (DSM 20241T) shared lower ANI (<94.1 %) and in silico DDH values (<57.0 %) with the other four L. mesenteroides lineage strains, indicating that DSM 20241T couldn be reclassified as representing a different species. Here, we report that DRC1506T represents a novel subspecies within the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides , for which the name Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. jonggajibkimchii subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DRC1506T (=KCCM 43249T=JCM 31787T). In addition, L. mesenteroides subsp. suionicum is also reclassified as Leuconostoc suionicum. sp. nov. (type strain DSM 20241T=ATCC 9135T=LMG 8159T=NCIMB 6992T).
A novel bacterial strain, designated S5H2222T, was isolated form the screen of a cellular phone. The cells were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic and motile, and endospores are formed. S5H2222T grew as pale white colonies on trypticase soy agar and the best growth was observed at 37 °C (10–55 °C) and at pH 7.0 (5.0–9.0). S5H2222T could tolerate up to 10 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed this strain within the genus Lysinibacillus and it exhibited high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Lysinibacillus halotolerans LAM612T (97.8 %), Lysinibacillus chungkukjangi 2RL3-2T (97.4 %) and Lysinibacillus sinduriensis BLB-1T (97.2 %). The DNA–DNA relatedness of the strain with L. halotolerans JCM 19611T, L. chungkukjangi KACC 16626T and L. sinduriensis KACC 16611T was 57, 64 and 55 % respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 39.8 mol%. The major fatty acids of S5H2222T were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. MK-7 was the only menaquinone and the main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified polar lipids were also present. The diagnostic amino acids in the cell wall peptidoglycan contained Lys–Asp (type A4α). On the basis of the results of the phenotypic and genotypic characterizations, it was concluded that S5H2222T represents a novel species of the genus Lysinibacillus , for which the name Lysinibacillus telephonicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S5H2222T (=MCC 3065T=KACC 18714T=LMG 29294T).
A bacterial strain designated RTAE36T was isolated from wheat roots in northern Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the isolate into the genus Paenibacillus with its closest relative being Paenibacillus borealis DSM 13188T with 97.7 % sequence similarity. Cells of the isolate were facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, motile and sporulating rods. Catalase and oxidase were positive. Gelatin, casein and starch were not hydrolysed. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon sources. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected, and anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. The polar lipids profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, two unidentified phospholipids, three unidentified phosphoaminolipids, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified lipid. m eso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. Strains RTAE36T and P. borealis DSM 13188T had an mean DNA–DNA relatedness of 39 % and differed in several phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, confirming that strain RTAE36T should be considered as a representative of a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus , for which the name Paenibacillus tritici sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RTAE36T (=LMG 29502T=CECT 9125T).
Obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacteria indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were isolated from non-dairy protein shakes in bloated bottles. One of the isolates, strain IEH 97212T, was selected for further study. The strain was closely related to Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium botulinum Group 1 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that strain IEH 97212T and strain PE (=DSM 18688), a bacterium isolated from solfataric mud, had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strains IEH 97 212T and DSM 18 688 were relatively more thermophilic (temperature range for growth: 30–55 °C) and less halotolerant [growth range: 0–2.5 % (w/v) NaCl] than C. sporogenes and C. botulinum . They were negative for catalase, oxidase, urease and l-pyrrolidonyl-arylamidase and did not produce indole. The strains produced acid from d-glucose, maltose and trehalose, and hydrolysed gelatin, but did not hydrolyse aesculin. The end-products of growth included acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, isocaproic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 2-piperidinone, 2-pyrrolidinone and gas(es). The predominant fatty acids were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The genomic DNA G+C content of strains IEH 97212T and DSM 18688 was 26.9 and 26.7 mol%, respectively. According to the digital DNA–DNA hybridization data, the relatedness of these strains was 98.4 %, while they showed only 35.7–36.0 % relatedness to C. sporogenes . Based on the results of this polyphasic study, these strains represent a novel species, for which the name Clostridium tepidum sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain IEH 97212T (=NRRL B-65463T=DSM 104389T).
A Gram-stain-positive, oxidase- and catalase-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain SK-3146T, was isolated from animal feed. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, revealed that the strain formed a distinct lineage within the genus Paenibacillus that was closely related to Paenibacillus yunnanensis JCM 30953T (98.6 %), Paenibacillus vulneris CCUG 53270T (98.0 %) and Paenibacillus chinjuensis DSM 15045T (96.9 %). Cells were non-motile, endospore-forming and formed milky colonies on NA and R2A agar media. Growth of strain SK-3146T occurred at temperatures of 18–45 °C, at pH 6.0–9.5 and between 0.5–3.0 % NaCl (w/v). The major menaquinone was MK-7, with lesser amounts of MK-6 present. The cell wall peptidoglycan of strain SK-3146T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content was 53.8 mol% and the DNA–DNA hybridization relatedness values between strain SK-3146T and P . yunnanensis JCM 30953T and P . vulneris CCUG 53270T were 26.13±0.8 % and 38.7±0.6 %, respectively. The phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results indicate that strain SK-3146T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus , for which the name Paenibacillus konkukensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SK-3146T (=KACC 18876T=LMG 29568T).
A Gram-stain-positive, lactic acid-producing bacterium designed strain MK21-7T, was isolated from tree bark collected from the north east of Thailand. This strain was a facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod that was catalase-negative. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan and had seven isoprene units (MK-7) as the predominant menaquinone. Major fatty acids of MK21-7T were anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. Polar lipids were phosphatidglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid, three unknown glycolipids and an unknown lipid. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that it represented a member of the genus Sporolactobacillus . MK21-7T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Sporolactobacillus terrae NBRC 101527T with 98.4 % similarity and exhibited 97.6 % similarity with Sporolactobacillus kofuensis NRIC 0334T, 97.5 % with Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus NRIC 0361T, 97.3 % with Sporolactobacillus nakayamae subsp. nakayamae NRIC 0347T and 97.1 % with Sporolactobacillus nakayamae subsp. racemicus NBRC 101524T. Analysis of the phylogenetic relationship based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequencing revealed that the position of MK21-7T was clearly separated from all related species of the genus Sporolactobacillus . It had low DNA–DNA relatedness (22.8–57.2 %) with S. terrae NBRC 101527T and related type strains. The DNA G+C content was 43.1 mol%. On the basis of the results of the phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic studies, MK21-7T should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Sporolactobacillus for which the name Sporolactobacillus shoreicorticis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MK21-7T (=NBRC 111517T=LMG 29111T=TISTR 2466T).
A strictly anaerobic Gram-stain-positive, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacterial strain, BR31T, was isolated from a faecal sample of a healthy human. Bacterial colonies were ivory-coloured on GAM agar and composed of rod-shaped cells with rounded ends approximately 1.4–2.1×0.5–0.6 µm in size. According to comparative analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain BR31T formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage that reflects a new genus within Clostridium cluster XIVa in the family Lachnospiraceae , with highest similarity to Eubacterium contortum DSM 3982T (94.6 %). The DNA G+C content was calculated to be 47.0 mol% from whole genome sequencing. Predicted genes associated with synthesis of teichuronic acid, polyamines, polar lipids and diaminopimelic acid were detected. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the main polar lipid detected was phosphatidylglycerol. The major metabolic end product of glucose was acetic acid, which was in agreement with those of most members of the family. However, the profile of major cellular fatty acids (C16 : 0, C14 : 0, summed feature 4 and C13 : 0) and overall enzyme activity demonstrated phenotypic differentiation of strain BR31T from other closely related genera. Thus, based on distinct phenotypic, phylogenetic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain BR31T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Merdimonas faecis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Merdimonas faecis is BR31T (=KCTC 15482T=JCM 30748T).