Cyanobacteria is an ancient phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms found in almost all environments of Earth. In recent years, the taxonomic placement of some cyanobacterial strains, including those belonging to the genus Nostoc sensu lato, have been reevaluated by means of a polyphasic approach. Thus, 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) secondary structures coupled with morphological, ecological and physiological data are considered powerful tools for a better taxonomic and systematics resolution, leading to the description of novel genera and species. Additionally, underexplored and harsh environments, such as saline–alkaline lakes, have received special attention given they can be a source of novel cyanobacterial taxa. Here, a filamentous heterocytous strain, Nostocaceae CCM-UFV059, isolated from Laguna Amarga, Chile, was characterized applying the polyphasic approach; its fatty acid profile and physiological responses to salt (NaCl) were also determined. Morphologically, this strain was related to morphotypes of the Nostoc sensu lato group, being phylogenetically placed into the typical cluster of the genus Desmonostoc. CCM-UFV059 showed identity of the 16S rRNA gene as well as 16S–23S secondary structures that did not match those from known described species of the genus Desmonostoc, as well as distinct ecological and physiological traits. Taken together, these data allowed the description of the first strain of a member of the genus Desmonostoc from a saline–alkaline lake, named Desmonostoc salinum sp. nov., under the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. This finding extends the ecological coverage of the genus Desmonostoc, contributing to a better understanding of cyanobacterial diversity and systematics.